Distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacterial species in stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff in South Korea
BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH
Authors: Jung, Woo Kyung; Shin, Sook; Park, Young Kyung; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Moon, Dong-Chan; Park, Kun Taek; Park, Yong Ho
Background Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. According to the One Health concept, an important step is to monitor the resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and trends of bacteria isolated from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff in South Korea between 2017 and 2018 were investigated. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics for Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcus spp. were determined to establish representatives of different antibiotic classes relevant for treatment or surveillance. For Coagulase-positive and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, resistance to fluoroquinolones was below 13%, but resistance to ampicillin and penicillin was high (20-88%). A total of 9.5, 12.1, and 40.3% of staphylococcal isolates from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff, respectively, were confirmed to be mecA positive. For Enterobacteriaceae, resistance to carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and 3rd generation cephalosporins was low (0-11.1%). The Enterococcus spp. isolates showed no resistance to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance rates of the Staphylococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae isolates from stray cats were usually lower than those of isolates from hospital-admitted cats and veterinary staff, but the Enterococcus spp. isolates revealed the opposite. Thus, the antimicrobial resistance varied across bacterial species according to the source from which they were isolated. Conclusions Resistance to critically important compounds were low. However, the presence of antimicrobial resistance in cat isolates is of both public health and animal health concern.
Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins inEscherichia coliand otherEnterobacteralesfrom Canadian turkeys
Authors: Moffat, Jonathan; Chalmers, Gabhan; Reid-Smith, Richard; Mulvey, Michael R.; Agunos, Agnes; Calvert, Julie; Cormier, Ashley; Ricker, Nicole; Weese, J. Scott; Boerlin, Patrick
The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) inEscherichia coliand otherEnterobacteralesfrom turkeys in Canada and characterize the associated resistance determinants. Pooled fecal samples were collected in 77 turkey farms across British Columbia, Quebec, and Ontario. Isolates were obtained with and without selective enrichment cultures and compared to isolates from diagnostic submissions of suspected colibacillosis cases in Ontario. Isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF and susceptibility to ESCs was assessed by disk diffusion. The presence ofbla(CMY),bla(CTX-M),bla(TEM,)andbla(SHV)was tested by PCR. Transformation experiments were used to characterizebla(CMY)plasmids. Genome sequencing with short and long reads was performed on a representative sample ofbla(CTX-M)-positive isolates to assess isolates relatedness and characterizebla(CTX-M)plasmids. For the positive enrichment cultures (67% of total samples), 93% (587/610) were identified asE.coli, with only a few otherEnterobacteralesspecies identified. The frequency of ESC resistance was low inE.coliisolates from diagnostic submission (4%) and fecal samples without selective enrichment (5%). Of the ESC-resistantEnterobacteralesisolates from selective enrichments, 71%, 18%, 14%, and 8% were positive forbla(CMY),bla(TEM,)bla(CTX-M,)andbla(SHV), respectively. IncI1 followed by IncK were the main incompatibility groups identified forbla(CMY)plasmids. Thebla(CTX-M-1)gene was found repeatedly on IncI1 plasmids of the pMLST type 3, whilebla(CTX-M-15),bla(CTX-M-55), andbla(CTX-M-65)were associated with a variety of IncF plasmids. Clonal spread of strains carryingbla(CTX-M)genes between turkey farms was observed, as well as the presence of an epidemicbla(CTX-M-1)plasmid in unrelatedE.colistrains. In conclusion,Enterobacteralesresistant to ESCs were still widespread at low concentration in turkey feces two years after the cessation of ceftiofur use. Althoughbla(CMY-2)is the main ESC resistance determinant inE.colifrom Canadian turkeys,bla(CTX-M)genes also occur which are often carried by multidrug resistance plasmids. Both clonal spread and horizontal gene transfer are involved in parallel in the spread ofbla(CTX-M)genes inEnterobacteralesfrom Canadian turkeys.