Creative Diagnostics offers several new ELISA Kits for quantitative and qualitative analysis of antimicrobial drugs in different kinds of samples. Each of our kits goes through fit-for-purpose validation and stability testing to ensure high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.
|Drug Class||Antimicrobial Drug Name||
|Cefalexin||0.5||milk, tissue, honey and urine|
|Quinolones||3-methyl-quinosaline-2-carboxylicacid||5||chicken, duck and other sample types|
|Ciprofloxacin||0.5||tissues, honey, milk, milk powder, egg|
|Sulfonamide||Sulfadiazine||1||tissue, serum, honey, milk|
|Sulfanilamides||0.5||chickens, pigs, fish, shrimp, honey, etc.|
|Others||Vancomycin||1||human serum or plasma|
|Thiamphenicol drug residue||0.15||raw milk, egg, seafood, tissue|
|Albendazole||10||meat and feed|
What is Antimicrobial Drugs?
Antimicrobial drug is a kind of drug used to treat a microbial infection. Antimicrobial is a general term that refers to a group of drugs that includes antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antivirals. They are derived from bacteria or molds or are synthesized de novo. Technically, “antibiotic” refers only to antimicrobials derived from bacteria or molds but is often used synonymously with “antibacterial drug.”
What is the difference between antibiotic and antimicrobial?
The terms antimicrobial and antibiotic encompass a wide variety of pharmaceutical agents that include antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic drugs. But what is the difference between antibiotic and antimicrobial substances?
Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Drugs
Most antimicrobial drugs currently in clinical use are antibacterial because the prokaryotic cell provides a greater variety of unique targets for selective toxicity, in comparison to fungi, parasites, and viruses. Antibiotics have many mechanisms of action, including inhibiting cell wall synthesis, increasing cell membrane permeability, and interfering with protein synthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, and other metabolic processes (eg, folic acid synthesis). The figure and table below summarized the way in which a drug affects microbes at the cellular level. These drugs have very serious side effects and will cause bacilus resistance if they exist in human body for a long period. They also have potential carcinogenecity.
|Table 1. Common Antibacterial Drugs by Mode of Action|
|Mode of Action||Target||Drug Class|
|Inhibit cell wall biosynthesis||Penicillin-binding proteins||β-lactams: penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems|
|Peptidoglycan subunit transport||Bacitracin|
|Inhibit biosynthesis of proteins||30S ribosomal subunit||Aminoglycosides, tetracyclines|
|50S ribosomal subunit||Macrolides, lincosamides, chloramphenicol, oxazolidinones|
|Disrupt membranes||Lipopolysaccharide, inner and outer membranes||Polymyxin B, colistin, daptomycin|
|Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis||RNA||Rifamycin|
|Antimetabolites||Folic acid synthesis enzyme||Sulfonamides, trimethoprim|
|Mycolic acid synthesis enzyme||Isonicotinic acid hydrazide|
|Mycobacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase inhibitor||Mycobacterial ATP synthase||Diarylquinoline|