Rat C3 reference serum (DAGA-687)

Alternative Names
Rat; C3; Serum
Batch dependent - please inquire should you have specific requirements
0.1% Sodium Azide
Frozen -20°C
Antigen Description
C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system. Its processing by C3 convertase is the central reaction in both classical and alternative complement pathways. After activation C3b can bind covalently, via its reactive thioester, to cell surface carbohydrates or immune aggregates.Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C3, C3a anaphylatoxin is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces the contraction of smooth muscle, increases vascular permeability and causes histamine release from mast cells and basophilic leukocytes.


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Procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship in Asia-Pacific countries: adaptation based on an expert consensus meeting


Authors: Lee, Chien-Chang; Kwa, Andrea Lay Hoon; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Feng, Jia-Yih; Gluck, Eric Howard; Ito, Akihiro; Karuniawati, Anis; Periyasamy, Petrick; Pratumvinit, Busadee; Sharma, Jeetendra; Solante, Rontgene; Swaminathan, Subramanian; Tyagi, Niraj; Dien Minh Vu; Zirpe, Kapil; Schuetz, Philipp

Introduction: Recently, an expert consensus on optimal use of procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship was published focusing mainly on Europe and the United States. However, for Asia-Pacific countries, recommendations may need adaptation due to differences in types of infections, available resources and standard of clinical care. Methods: Practical experience with PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship was discussed among experts from different countries, reflecting on the applicability of the proposed Berlin consensus algorithms for Asia-Pacific. Using a Delphi process, the group reached consensus on two PCT algorithms for the critically ill and the non-critically ill patient populations. Results: The group agreed that the existing evidence for PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship in patients with acute respiratory infections and sepsis is generally valid also for Asia-Pacific countries, in regard to proposed PCT cut-offs, emphasis on diagnosis, prognosis and antibiotic stewardship, overruling criteria and inevitable adaptations to clinical settings. However, the group noted an insufficient database on patients with tropical diseases currently limiting the clinical utility in these patients. Also, due to lower resource availabilities, biomarker levels may be measured less frequently and only when changes in treatment are highly likely. Conclusions: Use of PCT to guide antibiotic stewardship in conjunction with continuous education and regular feedback to all stakeholders has high potential to improve the utilization of antibiotic treatment also in Asia-Pacific countries. However, there is need for adaptations of existing algorithms due to differences in types of infections and routine clinical care. Further research is needed to understand the optimal use of PCT in patients with tropical diseases.

Influence of tea polyphenol and bovine serum albumin on tea cream formation by multiple spectroscopy methods and molecular docking


Authors: Yu, Xia; Cai, Xinghong; Luo, Liyong; Wang, Jie; Ma, Mengjun; Wang, Min; Zeng, Liang

The sensory qualities and shelf life of tea beverage strongly affected by tea cream that forms by the interaction of polyphenols and protein. The study aimed to investigate the effects of the interactions between tea polyphenols (TPs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on tea cream formation at different concentrations. The tea cream formation increased with TPs and BSA concentration increased. The optimal concentration (TPs: 800 mg/L, BSA: 40 mg/L), for high clarities and contents of phytochemicals, was selected by the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (C = 0.7572). The interaction mechanism of TPs-BSA was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular docking. TPs interacted with BSA via static quenching process, affecting tryptophan and tyrosine residue microenvironment of BSA. Ester catechins had more binding affinity than non-ester catechins. Hydrogen bonds were the main interaction forces of TPs-BSA.

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