Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Lysophosphatidylcholine-Induced Endothelial Cell Activation
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY
Authors: Li, Xinyuan; Fang, Pu; Li, Yafeng; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Andrews, Andrew J.; Nanayakkara, Gayani; Johnson, Candice; Fu, Hangfei; Shan, Huimin; Du, Fuyong; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Yu, Daohai; Eguchi, Satoru; Madesh, Muniswamy; Koch, Walter J.; Sun, Jianxin; Jiang, Xiaohua; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng
Objective-Hyperlipidemia-induced endothelial cell (EC) activation is considered as an initial event responsible for monocyte recruitment in atherogenesis. However, it remains poorly defined what is the mechanism underlying hyperlipidemia-induced EC activation. Here, we tested a novel hypothesis that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) serve as signaling mediators for EC activation in early atherosclerosis. Approach and Results-Metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses revealed that several lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) species, such as 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1, and their processing enzymes, including Pla2g7 and Pla2g4c, were significantly induced in the aortas of apolipoprotein E knockout mice during early atherosclerosis. Using electron spin resonance and flow cytometry, we found that LPC 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 induced mtROS in primary human aortic ECs, independently of the activities of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Mechanistically, using confocal microscopy and Seahorse XF mitochondrial analyzer, we showed that LPC induced mtROS via unique calcium entry-mediated increase of proton leak and mitochondrial O 2 reduction. In addition, we found that mtROS contributed to LPC-induced EC activation by regulating nuclear binding of activator protein-1 and inducing intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene expression in vitro. Furthermore, we showed that mtROS inhibitor MitoTEMPO suppressed EC activation and aortic monocyte recruitment in apolipoprotein E knockout mice using intravital microscopy and flow cytometry methods. Conclusions-ATP synthesis-uncoupled, but proton leak-coupled, mtROS increase mediates LPC-induced EC activation during early atherosclerosis. These results indicate that mitochondrial antioxidants are promising therapies for vascular inflammation and cardiovascular diseases.
Isolation of microvascular endothelial cells from cadaveric corneal limbus
EXPERIMENTAL EYE RESEARCH
Authors: Gillies, Peter J.; Bray, Laura J.; Richardson, Neil A.; Chirila, Traian V.; Harkin, Damien G.
Limbal microvascular endothelial cells (L-MVEC) contribute to formation of the corneal-limbal stem cell niche and to neovascularization of diseased and injuries corneas. Nevertheless, despite these important roles in corneal health and disease, few attempts have been made to isolate L-MVEC with the view to studying their biology in vitro. We therefore explored the feasibility of generating primary cultures of L-MVEC from cadaveric human tissue. We commenced our study by evaluating growth conditions (MesenCult-XF system) that have been previously found to be associated with expression of the endothelial cell surface marker thrombomodulin/CD141, in crude cultures established from collagenase-digests of limbal stroma. The potential presence of L-MVEC in these cultures was examined by flow cytometry using a more specific marker for vascular endothelial cells, CD31/PECAM-1. These studies demonstrated that the presence of CD141 in crude cultures established using the MesenCult-XF system is unrelated to L-MVEC. Thus we subsequently explored the use of magnetic assisted cell sorting (MACS) for CD31 as a tool for generating cultures of L-MVEC, in conjunction with more traditional endothelial cell growth conditions. These conditions consisted of gelatin-coated tissue culture plastic and MCDB-131 medium supplemented with foetal bovine serum (10% v/v), D-glucose (10 mg/mL), epidermal growth factor (10 ng/mL), heparin (50 mu g/mL), hydrocortisone (1 mu g/mL) and basic fibroblast growth factor (10 ng/mL). Our studies revealed that use of endothelial growth conditions are insufficient to generate significant numbers of L-MVEC in primary cultures established from cadaveric corneal stroma. Nevertheless, through use of positive-MACS selection for CD31 we were able to routinely observe L-MVEC in cultures derived from collagenase-digests of limbal stroma. The presence of L-MVEC in these cultures was confirmed by immunostaining for von Willebrand factor (vWF) and by ingestion of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Moreover, the vWF(+) cells formed aligned cell-to-cell 'trains' when grown on Geltrex (TM). The purity of L-MVEC cultures was found to be unrelated to tissue donor age (32-80 years) or duration in eye bank corneal preservation medium prior to use (3-10 days in Optisol) (using multiple regression test). Optimal purity of L-MVEC cultures was achieved through use of two rounds of positive-MACS selection for CD31 (mean +/- s.e.m, 65.0 +/- 20.8%; p < 0.05). We propose that human L-MVEC cultures generated through these techniques, in conjunction with other cell types, will provide a useful tool for exploring the mechanisms of blood vessel cell growth in vitro. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.