Effect of Treatment with Cyproterone Acetate on Uterine Bleeding at the Beginning of GnRH Analogue Therapy in Girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty
HORMONE RESEARCH IN PAEDIATRICS
Authors: Seminara, S.; Nanni, L.; Generoso, M.; Mirri, S.; Leonardi, V.; Slabadzianiuk, T.; Vetrano, M. L.; Buongiorno, A.; Losi, S.; Galluzzi, F.
Background: The flare-up effect of GnRH analogues may cause transient uterine bleeding in girls affected with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Aims: To assess the incidence of endometrial bleeding and verify whether pretreatment with cyproterone acetate could counteract it. Methods: Fifty-four girls affected by ICPP were divided into 2 groups. The first group (30 girls) was treated with triptorelin (3.75 mg, i.m. injection) every 28 days. The second group (24 girls) was treated with cyproterone acetate and triptorelin: cyproterone acetate (50 mg/m(2)) was administered every day for 8 weeks, and triptorelin (3.75 mg) was commenced 4 weeks after starting the cyproterone, then the intramuscular injection of triptorelin was repeated every 28 days. Results: Eight of 54 girls (15%) had mild withdrawal bleeding. There were no differences in incidence between groups 1 and 2. Girls with pubertal uterus at pelvic ultrasound had a higher incidence of uterine bleeding than girls with infantile uterus (25 vs. 7%), but this difference was not significant. Conclusion: Co-administration of cyproterone acetate and GnRH analogues does not significantly decrease the incidence of uterine bleeding. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
Turner's syndrome mosaicism 45X/47XXX: An interesting natural history
JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION
Authors: Tauchmanova, L; Rossi, R; Pulcrano, M; Tarantino, L; Baldi, C; Lombardi, G
Mosaicism 45X/47XXX is a sporadic form of ovarian dysgenesis. Many of the cases previously described were characterized by a variable phenotype expression. We here report the case of a 33-yr-old woman with recent secondary amenorrhea, weight loss and breast regression. Her menarche had occurred at the age of 11 yr and 6 months and her menstrual cycles had been regular until the age of 28; then, oligomenorrhea and hypertricosis developed. A pelvic ultrasound showed enlarged polycystic-like ovaries and normal uterus. She was treated with ethynil-estradiol and cyproterone acetate for one year. At the age of 31 yr, she underwent a pelvic ultrasound - which revealed normal volume of the ovaries - and hormonal assays including FSH (69 UI/I), LH (113 UI/I), 17 beta -estradiol (88 pg/ml), plasma androgens and cortisol levels within normal ranges. No organ-specific autoantibodies toward ovaries, steroid-producing cells or adrenals were found. At the age of 33 yr, there was ultrasound evidence of streak-like ovaries. The patient's height was 145 cm and her weight 45 kg. She had normal female external genitalia, abnormal upper-to-lower body segment ratio, webbed neck, low posterior hair line, cubitus valgus, short and asymmetrical 4(th) metacarpi, hallux with lateral deviation and moderate scoliosis. No increase in ovarian steroids were found after GnRH-analogue triptorelin (0,1 mg sc) administration. The karyotype analysis on peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a mosaic 45X (90% cells) and 47XXX (10% cells). Diagnostic pelviscopy confirmed streak gonads. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis was diagnosed but no cardiovascular or kidney abnormalities were found. A neuro-psychological evaluation revealed emotional and social immaturity, disorders in motorial coordination, visual-spatial organization, as well as reading difficulties and impaired complex phrase construction. The presence of several somatic features of Turner's syndrome, neuro-psychological disorders and an interesting natural history probably depended on the quantitative proportion of 45X to 47XXX cell-lines in different tissues and organs. Estrogen and progestin replacement therapy led to weight gain, re-appearance of secondary sexual characteristics and a mild improvement in mental equilibrium. (C) 2001, Editrice Kurtis.