Human Anti-Crimean/Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) IgM ELISA Kit (DEIA-CL017)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
96T
Sample
serum, plasma
Species Reactivity
Human
Intended Use
The Human Anti-Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) IgM ELISA Kit detects and quantifies CCHFV -specific IgM in human serum or plasma of vaccinated, immunized and/or infected hosts. This immunoassay is suitable for:
_ Determining immune status relative to non- immune controls;
_ Assessing efficacy of vaccines, including dosage, adjuvantcy, route of immunization and timing;
_ Qualifying and standardizing vaccine batches & protocols.
Sensitivity
Assay Sensitivity
The CCHFV NP-coated plate and the anti-Human IgM HRP concentration are optimized to differentiate anti- CCHFV IgM from background (non-antibody) signal with human serum samples diluted 1:200.
Calibrator Values
The Calibrators are composed of dilutions of antibody to CCHFV NP. Values are assigned in arbitrary units.
General Description
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. The pathogenic virus, especially common in East and West Africa, is a member of the Bunyaviridae family of RNA viruses. Clinical disease is rare in infected mammals, but is commonly severe in infected humans, with a 30% mortality rate. Outbreaks of illness are usually attributable to handling infected animals or humans. CCHF is distributed throughout Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean, northwestern China, central Asia Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent.
The virus genome is circular, ambisense RNA in three parts - Small (S), Middle (M) and Large (L). The L segment encodes the RNA polymerase; the M segment encodes the envelope proteins (Gc and Gn); and the S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein. The envelope protein is initially translated as a glycoprotein precursor which is then cleaved into two smaller proteins. Based on the sequence data seven genotypes have been recognized: Africa 1 (Senegal), Africa 2 (Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Africa), Africa 3 (southern and western Africa), Europe 1 (Albania, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Russia and Turkey), Europe 2 (Greece) Asia 1 (the Middle East, Iran and Pakistan) and Asia 2 (China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan).
Vaccines: A Turkish research team led by Refik Saydam Health Institute has developed treatment- serum derived from blood of several CCHF-patients, which have been proven to be %90 effective in CCHF patients. The vaccine is pending for FDA approval.
ADI has cloned, expressed and purified CCHFV nucleoprotein (482-aa, ~55 kDa) that is being used as a candidate for newer subunit vaccine for CCHF.

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References


Towards an understanding of the migration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY

Authors: Mild, Mattias; Simon, Melinda; Albert, Jan; Mirazimi, Ali

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a lethal disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). It is one of the most widespread medically significant tick-borne pathogens, with a distribution that coincides well with the geographical occurrence of its tick vector, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum. Sporadic outbreaks of CCHF have previously been recognized in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe but, in the 21st century, outbreaks have become more frequent in former Yugoslavia, Turkey and Iran. It has been suggested that CCHFV is a migrating pathogen, but it is not clear to what extent. We have, for the first time, analysed the worldwide migration pattern of CCHFV. Our results showed that Turkey may be a donor in Europe, towards both the east and the west, while the United Arab Emirates acted as a donor in the Middle East, and China was found to be the origin for genotype 2. Finally, we showed that migration of CCHFV was unrestricted between Iran and Pakistan, Considering the distribution and coincidence of the tick vector with CCHFV and CCHF, and the fact that the tick vector is present in western Europe, future outbreaks may extend to include hitherto-naive areas, suggesting that increased surveillance and geographical mapping of this lethal pathogen are needed.

Problem of ticks and tick-borne diseases in India with special emphasis on progress in tick control research: A review

JOURNAL OF VECTOR BORNE DISEASES

Authors: Ghosh, Srikant; Nagar, Gaurav

Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV). Babesia spp, The ileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme.

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