Identification of gene expression signature for cigarette smoke exposure responsefrom man to mouse
HUMAN & EXPERIMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
Authors: Martin, F.; Talikka, M.; Hoeng, J.; Peitsch, M. C.
Gene expression profiling data can be used in toxicology to assess both the level and impact of toxicant exposure, aligned with a vision of 21st century toxicology. Here, we present a whole blood-derived gene signature that can distinguish current smokers from either nonsmokers or former smokers with high specificity and sensitivity. Such a signature that can be measured in a surrogate tissue (whole blood) may help in monitoring smoking exposure as well as discontinuation of exposure when the primarily impacted tissue (e.g., lung) is not readily accessible. The signature consisted of LRRN3, SASH1, PALLD, RGL1, TNFRSF17, CDKN1C, IGJ, RRM2, ID3, SERPING1, and FUCA1. Several members of this signature have been previously described in the context of smoking. The signature translated well across species and could distinguish mice that were exposed to cigarette smoke from ones exposed to air only or had been withdrawn from cigarette smoke exposure. Finally, the small signature of only 11 genes could be converted into a polymerase chain reaction-based assay that could serve as a marker to monitor compliance with a smoking abstinence protocol.
Presence of four major haplotypes in human BCMA gene: lack of association with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis
GENES AND IMMUNITY
Authors: Kawasaki, A; Tsuchiya, N; Fukazawa, T; Hashimoto, H; Tokunaga, K
BCMA (TNFRSF17), along with TACI, has recently been demonstrated to be a receptor for BLyS (TNFSF13B). Recent studies indicated substantial role of BLyS signaling pathway for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the present study, we made an attempt to screen for polymorphisms of human BCMA, and to test their possible association with SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected within the coding sequence, both of which were synonymous substitutions. In addition, two SNPs within the promoter, two SNPs in the 5-untranslated region (UTP), one SNP and one single nucleotide deletion in the 3' UTR and four rare variations were detected. From the combination of the polymorphisms, it was elucidated that four major haplotypes account for most of the genotypes in the Japanese population. Association with SLE and RA was not detected, although a slight tendency for the increase of BCMA.03 in SLE was observed (P = 0.089). These results indicated that human BCMA is conserved with respect to the amino acid sequence, and evidence for association with SLE and RA was not observed.