Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. Bayer et comp. It is the most widely used anticonvulsant worldwide, and the oldest still commonly used. It also has sedative and hypnotic properties but, as with other barbiturates, has been superseded by the benzodiazepines for these indications. The World Health Organization recommends its use as first-line for partial and generalized tonic–clonic seizures (those formerly known as grand mal) in developing countries. It is a core medicine in the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system. In more affluent countries, it is no longer recommended as a first or second-line choice anticonvulsant for most seizure types, though it is still commonly used to treat neonatal seizures. Phenobarbital (and phenobarbital sodium) is manufactured and supplied in various forms: In Tablets of 15, 30,70and 100?mg (though not all are available in all countries: for example, in Australia only the 30?mg strength tablets are available); in an oral elixir (commonly 3?mg/mL in strength); and in a form for injection (as phenobarbital sodium - usually 200?mg/mL). The injectable form is used principally to control status epilepticus, while the oral forms are used for prophylactic and maintenance therapy.