Progesterone and estrogen are the two most important hormones in the female body. These are steroid hormones that are responsible for various female characteristics in the body. The ovaries are a pair of ova-producing organs (that is, they produce egg cells) that maintain the health of the female reproductive system. In addition to their role in producing ova, the ovaries also have the distinction of being an endocrine gland because they secrete hormones—primarily estrogen and progesterone—that are vital to normal reproductive development and fertility.
Estrogen, a steroid hormone, carries physiological messages to body organs and systems. These messages differ for each body organ and system. Estrogen sends messages to the uterus to grow and replace the lining that is shed during the previous menses. The three major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). Estradiol is the predominant estrogen during reproductive years both in terms of absolute serum levels as well as in terms of estrogenic activity. During menopause, estrone is the predominant circulating estrogen and during pregnancy estriol is the predominant circulating estrogen in terms of serum levels. Though estriol is the most plentiful of the three estrogens it is also the weakest, whereas estradiol is the strongest with a potency of approximately 80 times that of estriol. Creative Diagnostics company provides estrogen antibodies, antigens, elisa kits as follows:
Progesterone is a hormone produced primarily in the ovaries, but also in smaller quantities by the adrenal glands, and in the placenta of pregnant women. The hormone helps regulate menstruation, prepares the body for pregnancy, and aids in nourishing the uterine environment to support implantation of the fertilized egg, as well as growth of the placenta. Progesterone levels may be monitored through simple blood serum testing if necessary. Creative Diagnostics company provides estrogen antibodies, antigens, elisa kits as follows:
|Progesterone||Progesterone antigens||Progesterone antibodies||Progesterone elisa kits|
The primary function of estrogens is development of female secondary sexual characteristics. These includes breasts, endometrium, regulation of the menstrual cycle etc. In males estrogen helps in maturation of the sperm and maintenance of a healthy libido. Estrogen is responsible for development of the female body and the secondary sexual characters. It helps decelerate height increase in females during puberty, accelerates burning of body fat and reduces muscle bulk. Estrogens reduce bone resorption and increase bone formation. They help in protein synthesis, increase hepatic production of binding proteins, coagulation proteins (factors II, VII, IX, X, plasminogen). Estrogens increase platelet adhesiveness and reduce antithrombin III. Estrogens increase good cholesterol (HDL) and also increase triglycerides. They decrease LDL and promote fat deposition. On fluids and electrolytes estrogens cause salt (sodium) and water retention. In the gastrointestinal tract they reduce bowel motility and increase cholesterol in bile. They also improve lung functions. Estrogen function
Progesterone decreases the target organs response to estrogen by decreasing the number of receptors the organ has for estrogen. Receptors are molecules on the cells that recognize specific hormones and allows them to carry their message to the cell. Progesterone also decreases breast cell growth. It is involved in the maturation of breast cells and decreases the rate of multiplication. Progesterone also promotes normal cell death in the breast which is important in the prevention of cancer. While estrogen decreases the rate of bone breakdown, progesterone stimulates bone osteoblasts. Osteoblasts are responsible for making new bone to replace old bone. By decreasing thyroid binding globulin, progesterone increases the activity of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone increases metabolism, and utilizes the fat stored under estrogen influence for energy. Normal progesterone levels are important for a normal body composition. Low progesterone levels can lead to weight gain. Progesterone stimulates normal sex drive because it can be converted to testosterone which is involved in male and female sex drive. It blocks aldosterone receptors. Aldosterone promotes water retention and swelling. Progesterone blocks aldosterone causing normal fluid loss and decreasing swelling. Progesterone decreases uterine muscle contractions which cause menstrual cramps by promoting uterine muscle relaxation.