It is known that APOE is concern with many disease including Alzheimer’s disease,Atherosclerosis and Diabetic Nephropathy (DN).The close link btween APOE and Alzheimer’s disease and the relationship between APOE and Atherosclerosis have been discussed in last blog.
There is also a link between APOE and DN. Diabetic Nephropathy is a common chronic complications of diabetes. According to the research, these patients with DN have an
obvious reduction of APOE. The reason is that kidney is one of the sources of APOE and damage of kidney leads to the decline of APOE serum. So APOE test is significant to diagnosis of related disease. The tests are mainly divided into two kinds of methods: the methods to test genotype of APOE and the test of concentration of APOE.
Test of APOE’s Genotype
Genotype test is use PCR to enlarge genome sequence of APOE and then test its polymorphism in gene level. Separate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from enzyme and mutation – specific amplification system will use the specific Oligonucleotide as one of primers of PCR. If there is mutation, it will have PCR action. If it is not, it has action with normal primers. Polymorphism analysis of single strand conformation depends on that DNA of polymorphism have sequence-specific conformation in polypropylene non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. APOE’s polymorphism is related to many disease, so rapid and right test of APOE can provide evidences of diagnosis and treatment of many disease.
Test of Concentration of APOE
The earliest way to test the concentration of APOE is radio immunoassay. But it keeps difference due to the difference of reagents,samples,process in different labs. APOE Elisa, Immunoelectrophoresis and Immunoturbidimetric are also important ways to test APOE. All of these methods have variation for the different condition. RIA and APOE Elisa are more sensitive than others.No matter what methods are used to test, the appropriate result must be produced in the standard assays. The effected factors of APOE’s concentration of blood concludes gender, age and smoking history. The concentration will reduce since people was born and will increase after they are thirty years old. Then it will reduce again after they are sixty years old. About 80% of smokers have a rising of APOE in blood. People with Hypertriglyceridemia have a higher concentration of APOE than people with high cholesterol. Patients with Coronary Heart Disease have a obvious change of APOE.
That is the test methods.