Fungus is the member in a big group which are made by eukaryotic organisms containing microorganisms. Most of them are not detrimental to human body, but some will lead to fungal disease. The reason is that biological compounds will be produced by fungi and some of compounds are harmful to plants, animals and human body. Fungus is mostly in every place.Thus people are easy to get attacked by harmful fungus. It will cause skin and lung infection.
First, use ELISA or Latex agglutination to test mannan antigens which exist in yeast cell wall. When antigens exist in candida bacteremia, both its sensitivity and specificity are over 80%. So fungal antigens test can be used in early diagnosis of deep candida infections.
Second, when sandwich ELISA are used to galactomannan antigen in fungal cell wall, the antigens can release into the blood. Sensitivity and specificity of this test are high and the sensitivity improves as time goes. It is meaningful to early diagnosis of deep fungal infections for the fungal antigens test can get continuous monitoring of high-risk patients.
Third, capsular polysaccharide antigen of Cryptococcus neoformans can be tested through latex agglutination test or ELISA. If the antigens are detected in cerebrospinal fluid, it can be diagnosed as cryptococcus encephalitis. But one thing have to be noticed that RF need to be removed. If not, the test will be incorrect.
Forth, enolase of molecular weight 48kD can be detected by ELISA and WB, which is beneficial to test antigen with candida specificity.
Moreover, testing aflatoxin in food and soluble antigen of sporothrix patients are early, rapid and specific method to diagnose antigens. As immunological testing technology advances, the application area of fungal antigens test are widening.