Food Source Pathogen Detection Tool Development Materials

Diagnostics

What Is a Foodborne Illness?

Foodborne illness is a disease that causes infection or poisoning in humans due to the ingestion of foods containing toxic and hazardous substances into the human body. Foodborne illness usually causes gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea and vomiting, severe diarrhea, systemic infection and even death, and accounts for a large proportion of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Because of their continuing threat to public health, it has become a major obstacle to global socio-economic development. Up to now, more than 200 different foodborne diseases have been discovered. The most serious cases usually occur in the elderly, children or people with impaired immune system function. There are many factors that cause foodborne illness, and foodborne pathogens are one of the most important factors.

Foodborne Pathogen

Foodborne illnesses are usually caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria and/or their toxins, parasites, viruses, chemicals or other agents. Among them, foodborne pathogens are the main cause of foodborne diseases. Foodborne pathogens are mainly bacteria, viruses and parasites found in food.

Bacterial

Bacteria are the most common cause of foodborne illness. Bacterial foodborne illness usually occurs in summer due to high temperatures and high humidity, which provides a good living environment for bacterial growth and production. There are two types of bacterial foodborne diseases: poisoning and infection. Foodborne poisoning is caused by ingestion of foods that contain bacterial toxins. Common bacteria that produce toxins include Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum. Food-borne infections are caused by ingestion of foods that contain live bacteria (such as Salmonella or Listeria), which can multiply in the host and cause disease.

Staphylococcus Aureus  

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. The bacterium can produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) which is causes of vomit after intake. SEs belong to the broad family of pyrogenic toxin superantigens. Superantigens (SAgs), unlike conventional antigens, do not need to be processed by antigen-presenting cells (APC) before being presented to T cells. They can directly stimulate T cells by cross-linking major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules on APC with the variable portion of the T-cell antigen receptor β chain (TCR Vβ) or the T-cell antigen receptor α chain for SE (TCR Vα), thereby inducing polyclonal cell proliferation. SAg-binding sites lie outside the peptide-binding groove and therefore do not depend on T-cell antigenic specificity but rather on the Vβ and/or Vα region of the TCR. This leads to activation of a large number of T cells followed by proliferation and massive release of chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines that may lead to potentially lethal toxic shock syndrome. The SAgs can interact with epithelial cells leading to their transepithelial transport, cell activation and induction of inflammatory state. First, most SAgs have dose-dependent capacity to cross the intestinal wall and produce a local and systemic action on the immune system. This transport is favoured by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine-like elements. A protein motif highly conserved among SE and located in the amino acids 120–130 and 144–161, for TSST1 and SE respectively, has been identified and is involved in this transcytosis. Stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells by SEA also induces an increase in the concentration of intracellular calcium via the release of cellular calcium reserves leading to their activation. This mechanism involves a nitric oxide synthase inducible by TNF-α. Finally, superantigenic stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells induces an inflammatory response. The activation of T84 cells (a human epithelial cell line) by SAgs induces the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and  regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). These chemokines promote the recruitment of immune mononuclear cells, which may explain the role of the SAgs in the pathogenesis of inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases.

In contrast to other bacterial enterotoxins, specific cells and receptors in the digestive system have not been clearly linked to oral intoxication by a SE. Sugiyama & Hayama (1965) suggested that SEs stimulate the vagus nerve in the abdominal viscera, which transmits the signal to the emetic centre. Supporting this idea, receptors on vagal afferent neurons are essential for SEA-triggered emesis. In addition, SEs are able to penetrate the gut lining and activate local and systemic immune responses. The diarrhoea sometimes associated with SE intoxication could be attributed to the inhibition of water and electrolyte reabsorption in the small intestine. In an attempt to link the two distinct activities of SEs, i.e., superantigenicity and emesis, it has been postulated that enterotoxin activity could facilitate transcytosis, enabling the toxin to enter the bloodstream and circulate through the body, thus allowing the interaction with APC and T cells that leads to superantigen activity. In this way, circulation of SEs following ingestion of SEs, as well as their spread from an S. aureus infection site, could have more profound effects upon the host than if the toxin remains localized.

Clostridium Botulinum

This organism produces toxins that cause botulism, a life-threatening disease that prevents air from entering and leaving the lungs by inhibiting the respiratory muscles. Source: Home canned food is not made properly; honey should not be fed to children under 12 months.

Figure1. Clostridium botulinum

Salmonella

Common bacteria that cause diarrhea are also the most common cause of foodborne death. In the United States, Salmonella causes 1.4 million foodborne illnesses each year. Source: unprocessed and uncooked eggs, uncooked poultry and meat, fresh fruits and vegetables, and unpasteurized dairy products.  

Figure2. Salmonella

                  

Listeria Monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a serious condition for pregnant women, newborns and adults with weakened immune systems. Source: Unpasteurized dairy products, including soft cheese, sliced deli meat, smoked fish, hot dogs and cooked salads (ie eggs, ham, seafood and chicken salad)

Figure3. Listeria monocytogenes

Virus

The virus is essentially a microparticle coated with a protein coat and propagates only in other living cells. Therefore, they cannot survive long-term outside the host. Although more than 100 enteroviruses have been found to cause foodborne illness, the most common foodborne viral pathogens are hepatitis A, rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus. These viruses can easily spread from one food to another, and bivalve molluscs, such as cockroaches, cockroaches, mussels, and oysters, are particularly susceptible to spreading the virus. Moreover, common antibiotic drugs are difficult to treat diseases caused by viral infections.

Norovirus

The main viral cause of diarrhea in the United States. Poor sanitation causes Norovirus to spread easily from person to person and from infected to food. Source: Any food contaminated by people infected with this virus.

Figure4. Norovirus

Parasite

A parasite is an organism that acquires nutrients and protection from an organism called a host. Like viruses, they do not proliferate in food, can only survive and multiply in tissues and organs of infected human and animal hosts, and are excreted by feces. They can spread by eating contaminated food and water, or by putting anything that touches the infected person or animal droppings into the mouth. Parasites vary in size and size, ranging from tiny single-celled microorganisms (protozoa) to larger multicellular worms (worms). Among them, the most common foodborne parasites are Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma gondii.

Toxoplasma Gondii

A parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a very serious disease that can cause central nervous system disorders, especially in children with mental retardation and visual impairment. Pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems are at higher risk. Source: Raw pork or uncooked pork.

Figure5. Toxoplasma gondii

 

How to Prevent the Occurrence of Foodborne Diseases?

Foodborne illnesses can have different pathogens, as well as different pathologies and clinical manifestations. However, a common feature of this type of disease is the disease through eating behavior, which provides an effective way to prevent such diseases: Strengthen food hygiene supervision and management, advocate reasonable nutrition, control food pollution, and improve food hygiene quality. It can effectively prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases. In order to prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases, microbial pathogen detection in food is a necessary means to prevent and identify health and safety related problems. By developing food-borne pathogens detection in foods, large-scale foodborne diseases can be effectively prevented. Therefore, the use of foodborne pathogen detection kits for food production, processing and transportation is an essential part of the assessment.

Creative Diagnostics is able to offer a variety of foodborne pathogen-associated antigens and antibodies for foodborne pathogen detection kit development. These antigens and antibodies have been demonstrated to be used in a variety of immunoassays and as a reliable reagent development material.

Species Target Cat. No. Product Name Application
Hepatitis A virus HAV HM175 DMAB3489 Anti-HAV MAb, Clone CDI869 ELISA, IHC
HAV CF53 DMAB3490 Anti-HAV MAb, Clone A819 ELISA, IF, IHC
HAV HM175 DPAB0224 Anti-HAV PAb ELISA
HAV DAG540 HAV VP3 [GST] ELISA, WB
HAV DAG1448 HAV P2C-P3A ELISA, WB
Campylobacter jejuni C. jejuni/C. coli CABT-L3146 Mouse Anti-Campylobacter jejuni / Campylobacter coli Mab, clone D12057N LFIA (Det)
C. jejuni/C. coli CABT-L3147 Mouse Anti-Campylobacter jejuni / Campylobacter coli Mab, clone D12058N LFIA(Cap)
C. jejuni DAG4688 C. jejuni SDS-PAGE, ELISA
C. jejuni DAGA-3031 Recombinant C. Jejuni Omp protein [His] CON, LF, ST
Escherichia Coli E. coli O157 LPS DCAB-TJ076 Magic™ Anti-E. coli O157 MAb, Clone C946N EIA, IF, ELISA(Det)
E. coli O157 LPS DCAB-TJ078 Magic™ Anti-E. coli O157 MAb, Clone C948N EIA, IF, ELISA(Cap)
E. coli Enterotoxin CABT-B8711 Magic™ Anti-E. coli Enterotoxin LT MAb, clone C2032N ELISA (Cap)
E. coli Enterotoxin CABT-B8712 Magic™ Anti-E. coli Enterotoxin LT MAb, clone C2035N ELISA (Det)
E. coli STp peptide CABT-B8713 Magic™ Anti-E. coli Enterotoxin STp MAb, clone C2037N ELISA (Cap)
E. coli STp peptide CABT-B8714 Magic™ Anti-E. coli Enterotoxin STp MAb, clone C2036N ELISA (Det)
E. coli O157 DAGA-3082 Recombinant E. coli O157 VT1 [His] Control, Immunogen
E. coli Heat shock protein DAG3447 E. coli Heat shock protein 1 N/A
Legionella L. pneumophila DCABY-4615 Magic™ Anti-L. pneumophila MAb, Clone 702230 ELISA(Cap), IF, IHC, WB
L. pneumophila DCABY-4746 Magic™ Anti-L. pneumophila MAb, Clone N00092042 ELISA(Det), IF, IHC, WB
L. pneumophila DAGA-165 L. pneumophila Antigen ELISA
L. pneumophila DAGA-164 Recombinant L. pneumophila Oligoribonuclease(orn) N/A
Salmonella Mixture of 4 Salmonella serotypes DCAB-TJ059 Magic™ Anti-Salmonella Group A, B, C, D, E, F and G MAb, Clone C454N EIA, ELISA(Cap)
Mixture of 4 Salmonella serotypes DCAB-TJ062 Magic™ Anti-Salmonella Group A, B, C, D, E, F and G MAb, Clone C458N EIA, IF, ELISA(Det)
S. paratyphi DAGA-3050 Native Salmonella paratyphi B antigen ELISA, LFIA
Shigella S. Flexneri NCTC 9729 DMABT-51566MS Anti-S. flexneri type 6 MAb, Clone 407/406 IHC, ELISA, FC, WB
Mixture of S. boydii, S. flexneri and S. dysenteriae DPATB-H82561 Anti-Shigella PAb WB, ELISA, IHC-Fr, ICC/IF
Shigella Flexneri DAGA-3027 Native Shigella Flexneri CON, LF
Bacillus anthracis B. anthracis Anthrax Lethal Factor DMAB3020 Anti-B. anthracis Lethal Factor Mab, Clone C744M ELISA(Det)
B. anthracis Anthrax Lethal Factor DMAB3021 Anti-B. anthracis Lethal Factor Mab, Clone C415M ELISA(Cap)
B. anthracis Edema Factor DAGB168 B. anthracis Edema Factor ELISA
B. anthracis Lethal Factor DAGB170 B. anthracis Lethal Factor Cyt
Clostridium C. difficile toxin B DCABY-4701 Magic™ Anti-C. difficile Toxin B MAb, Clone N0622425 ELISA(Cap)
C. difficile toxin A DCABY-4700 Magic™ Anti-C. difficile Toxin A MAb, Clone N0622422 ELISA(Det)
C. difficile toxin A DCAB-TJ124 Magic™ Anti-C. difficile Toxin A MAb, Clone CEJ666 EIA, ELISA(Cap)
C. difficile toxin A DCAB-TJ102 Magic™ Anti-C. difficile Toxin A MAb, Clone C2508N EIA, ELISA(Det)
C. difficile toxin B DAG2633 C. difficile Toxin B, TcdB (aa 1 – 543) [His] N/A
C. difficile toxin A DAGH048 C. difficile Toxin A N/A
Listeria L. monocytogenes p60 DCAB-TJ106 Magic™ Anti-L. monocytogenes p60 MAb, clone C2635N EIA, ELISA(Cap)
L. monocytogenes p60 DCAB-TJ108 Magic™ Anti-L. monocytogenes p60 MAb, clone C2636N EIA, ELISA(Det)
Listeria flagella DCABY-4550 Magic™ Anti-Listeria MAb, Clone N23408 ELISA(Cap), LFIA
Listeria flagella DCABY-4548 Magic™ Anti-Listeria MAb, Clone N23400 ELISA(Det), LFIA
L. monocytogenes DAG4326 L. monocytogenes Internalin [His] N/A
Listeriolysin DAG-P2785 Active Listeriolysin (aa 26 – 529) SDS-PAGE
Giardia G. lamblia CABT-RM040 Magic™ Mouse Anti-G. lamblia Cysts MAb, clone B13134N ELISA (Cap), IFA, LFIA, WB
G. lamblia CABT-RM041 Magic™ Mouse Anti-G. lamblia Cysts MAb, clone B13135N ELISA (Det), IFA, LFIA, WB
G. lamblia Trophozoite protein DAGA-3032 Recombinant G. Lamblia Trophozoite protein CON, LF
G. lamblia Cyst protein DAGA-3033 Recombinant G. Lamblia Cyst protein [His] CON, LF
Cryptosporidium coccidia Cryptosporidium DMABT-Z59458 Anti-Cryptosporidium MAb, Clone DGN0238 ELISA, ICC, IF
Cryptosporidium Cp23 CABT-BL8752 Anti-Cryptosporidium Cp23 MAb, clone 8E1 ELISA, IP, WB
Staphylococcus aureus SED DCABY-4634 Magic™ Anti-Staphylococcus Enterotoxin D MAb, Clone N230632 ELISA(Cap)
SED DCABY-4635 Magic™ Anti-Staphylococcus Enterotoxin D MAb, Clone N230633 ELISA(Det)
SEE DCABY-4639 Magic™ Anti-Staphylococcus Enterotoxin E MAb, Clone N230637 ELISA(Cap)
SEE DCABY-4641 Magic™ Anti-Staphylococcus Enterotoxin E MAb, Clone N230639 ELISA(Det)
SEA DCAB-TJ133 Magic™ Anti-S. aureus Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A MAb, Clone C003N EIA, ELISA(Cap), WB
SEA DCAB-TJ132 Magic™ Anti-S. aureus Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A MAb, Clone C008N EIA, ELISA(Det), WB
S. aureus DAG-P2815 S. aureus (full length) SDS-PAGE
SEB Toxoid DAGB111 S. aureus Enterotoxin Type B Toxoid ELISA
Vibrio cholerae V. Cholerae O1 Ogawa CABT-RM052 Magic™ Mouse Anti-V. cholerae O1 Ogawa MAb, clone N1810D4 ELISA (Det), LFIA
V. Cholerae O1 Ogawa CABT-RM053 Magic™ Mouse Anti-V. cholerae O1 Ogawa MAb, clone N1810D5 ELISA (Cap), LFIA
V. Cholerae O1 Inaba CABT-RM054 Magic™ Mouse Anti-V. cholerae O1 Inaba MAb, clone N1810D6 ELISA (Det), LFIA
V. Cholerae O1 Inaba CABT-RM055 Magic™ Mouse Anti-V. cholerae O1 Inaba MAb, clone N1810D7 ELISA (Cap), LFIA
V. Cholerae O1 (Ogawa & Inaba) DMAB9687 Magic™ Mouse Anti-V. cholerae O1 (Ogawa & Inaba) Mab, clone G136U136 ELISA (Det), LFIA
V. Cholerae O1 (Ogawa & Inaba) CABT-RM050 Magic™ Mouse Anti-V. cholerae O1 (Ogawa & Inaba) Mab, clone G136U137 ELISA (Cap), LFIA
V. Cholerae O139 DMAB9688 Magic™ Mouse Anti-V. cholerae O139 monoclonal antibody, clone H137V137 ELISA (Det), LFIA
V. Cholerae O139 CABT-RM051 Magic™ Mouse Anti-V. cholerae O139 monoclonal antibody, clone H137V138 ELISA (Cap), LFIA
V. cholerae Cholera Toxin DAGB146 V. cholerae Cholera Toxin (Azide free) HA
Pseudomonas aeruginosa P. aeruginosa serotype 3 DMABT-51503MP Anti-P. aeruginosa type 3 MAb, Clone 2002/325 IHC, ELISA, FC, IF, WB
P. aeruginosa serotype 6 DMABT-51504MP Anti-P. aeruginosa type 6 MAb, Clone 2020/398 IHC, ELISA, FC, IF, WB
P. aeruginosa serotype 7.8 DMABT-51508MP Anti-P. aeruginosa type 7, 8 Mab, Clone 02/504 IHC, ELISA, FC, IF, WB
P. aeruginosa serotype 9 DMABT-51507MP Anti-P. aeruginosa type 9 Mab, Clone 06/260 ELISA, IF
P. aeruginosa Exotoxin A CABT-B1977 Anti-P. aeruginosa Exotoxin A PAb ELISA, WB
P. aeruginosa Exotoxin A DAG4062 P. aeruginosa Exotoxin A N/A
Hepatitis E virus HEV b1-MBP CABT-L2744 Mouse Anti-Hev b1 (Rubber elongation factor, REF) MAb, clone 2-6 ELISA(Cap), WB
HEV b1-MBP CABT-L2745 Mouse Anti-Hev b1 (Rubber elongation factor, REF) MAb, clone 2-2 ELISA(Det), WB
HEV b3-MBP CABT-L2747 Mouse Anti-Hev b3 (Small rubber particle protein) MAb, clone 21 ELISA(Cap), WB
HEV b3-MBP CABT-L2746 Mouse Anti-Hev b3 (Small rubber particle protein) MAb, clone 6 ELISA(Det), WB
HEV b5-MBP CABT-L2748 Mouse Anti-Hev b5 (Major latex allergen) MAb, clone 5 ELISA(Cap)
HEV b5-MBP CABT-L2749 Mouse Anti-Hev b5 (Major latex allergen) MAb, clone 22 ELISA(Det)
HEV genotype 1 Capsid protein DAGCF-0161 Recombinant HEV Capsid protein (genotype 1) ELISA, Immunogen
HEV genotype 2 Capsid protein DAGCF-0162 Recombinant HEV Capsid protein (genotype 2) ELISA, Immunogen
Rotavirus Rhesus Rotavirus DCAB-TJ117 Magic™ Anti-Rotavirus MAb, Clone C207N EIA, IF, ELISA(Cap)
Rhesus Rotavirus DCAB-TJ116 Magic™ Anti-Rotavirus MAb, Clone C205N EIA, IF, ELISA(Det)
Rhesus Rotavirus DCAB-TJ118 Magic™ Anti-Rotavirus MAb, Clone C208N EIA, IF, ELISA(Det)
Rotavirus DAGA-258 Rotavirus Antigen N/A
Rotavirus DAGA-3002 Recombinant Rotavirus Vp6 protein Control, Immunogen
Astrovirus Astrovirus type 1 DMABT-51089MA Anti-Astrovirus type 1 MAb, Clone TW22 (CHO/08/9722) IHC, ELISA, WB
Astrovirus type 2 DMABT-51096MA Anti-Astrovirus MAb, Clone 90000000 IHC, ELISA, FC, IP, WB
Astrovirus CABT-RM046 Magic™ Mouse Anti-Astrovirus Capsid MAb, clone D12095N ELISA (Cap)
Astrovirus CABT-RM047 Magic™ Mouse Anti-Astrovirus Capsid MAb, clone D12094N ELISA (Det)
Astrovirus Capsid DAGA-3034 Recombinant Astrovirus Capsid protein [GST] Control, Immunogen
Astrovirus type 1 DAG-P2191 Astrovirus type 1 (full length) N/A
Norovirus Norovirus DCABY-4778 Magic™ Anti-Norovirus Mab, Clone N090602 ELISA(Cap)
Norovirus DCABY-4779 Magic™ Anti-Norovirus Mab, Clone N090603 ELISA(Det)
Norovirus GI Capsid Protein CABT-B8765 Magic™ Anti-Norovirus (GI Capsid protein) MAb ELISA (Cap), LFIA, WB
Norovirus GI Capsid Protein CABT-B8766 Magic™ Anti-Norovirus (GI Capsid protein) MAb ELISA (Det), LFIA, WB
Norovirus GI P Domain DAGA-3035 Recombinant Norovirus GI.1 P Domain [His] LF, ST
Norovirus GII P domain DAGA-3042 Recombinant Norovirus genogroup II (P domain) [His] ELISA, Controls, Vaccine Research
Prion Prion CABT-BL8960 Anti-Prion Protein QYQRES MAb WB, IHC, ELISA, FC
Prion Protein IHFG CABT-BL8959 Anti-Prion Protein IHFG MAb WB, IHC, ELISA
Prion Protein PrP DPATB-H81917 Magic™ Anti-Prion protein PrP (Phospho S43) PAb WB, IP, IHC-P
Hamster PRNP DAG3452 Hamster PRNP (aa 23 – 231) [His] N/A
Human PRNP CDBP2383 Human PRNP blocking peptide Apuri, BL, ELISA

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *