Infant hydrocephalus in sub-Saharan Africa: Impact of perioperative care in the Zanzibar archipelago
Authors: Moreno Oliveras, Luis; Llacer Ortega, Jose Luis; Leidinger, Andreas; Ali Haji, Mohamed; Chisbert Genoves, Maria Pilar; Piquer Belloch, Jose
Introduction: Child hydrocephalus in low- and middle-income countries represents one of the most sensitive ethical and health problems facing international health development. The most optimistic estimates indicate that 200,000 newborns annually will develop hydrocephalus or be born with a neural tube defect in East, Central and South Africa (ECSA). It is estimated that less than 10% of these children will be operated by ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and in general in poor quality conditions or with a very high complication rate. Objective: To describe the general characteristics, epidemiology and demographic data of childhood hydrocephalus of patients treated at the NED Institute in the Zanzibar archipelago, and assess the clinical details and medium-term results of the impact of the set-up nursing care. Material and methods: This is a descriptive and analytical observational study of a retrospective nature, in patients diagnosed and treated with childhood hydrocephalus, in the period from September 2016 to September 2018. With the implementation of a series of perioperative nursing protocols in these patients, the results obtained were described and analyzed. Results: A total of 96 patients were treated for childhood hydrocephalus. 51% (n = 49) of these patients were male, with a mean age of 9.25 months. All the mothers of the patients were monitored during pregnancy, but only 8% were treated with folic acid during pregnancy. 81% of children were born through vaginal delivery or uncomplicated spontaneous delivery. Regarding the etiology, 27.1% of treated hydrocephalus was associated with an infectious cause and 35.4% with an unknown cause. 67 ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and 15 endoscopic ventriculostomies were performed. The complication rate was 23.17%. Conclusions: The results of this research indicate that childhood hydrocephalus in Zanzibar has etiology, evolution and complications that are similar to or less than those described to date in East Africa. Implementing a series of perioperative protocols and standardized nursing care positively influences the results obtained. Currently, the Mnazi Mmoja Surgical NED Institute is one of the few centers in East Africa with an exhaustive record of healthcare activity and is the first health center that offers further training to nurses. (C) 2020 Sociedad Espanola de Neurocirugia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Maternal periconceptional folate status and infant atopic dermatitis: A prospective cohort study
PEDIATRIC ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Ye, Ying; Dou, Li-Min; Zhang, Yi; Dou, Ya-Lan; Zhao, Piao-Ping; Jiang, Yuan; Gao, Wei; Ji, Mi; He, Lin-Feng; Niu, Da-Yan; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Xiao-Hua; Li, Yun; Xiao, Li-Ping; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Liu-Hui; Yan, Wei-Li
Background Maternal folate status is linked with the risk of allergic disorders including atopic dermatitis (AD) in children, but findings remain inconclusive. We aim to assess the relationship between maternal folate status in early gestation and early-onset infant AD, based on a prospective mother-child cohort study. Methods Pregnant women were recruited at 12-14 weeks of gestation. Red blood cell folate (RBC folate) and serum folate concentrations were examined at enrollment. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation was investigated through a self-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome was AD incidence before 6 months of age, diagnosed according to Williams' criteria. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of maternal folate status with infant AD by adjusting parental and child covariates. Results In total, 107 (23.4%) of 458 infants developed AD before 6 months, with more male infants affected (P = .002). Higher maternal RBC folate levels (per 100 ng/mL) were associated with an increased risk of AD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.31). An RBC folate level >= 620 ng/mL was associated with increased infant AD by 91% (aOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.09-3.36). However, associations were not observed for maternal serum folate at early gestation or periconceptional folic acid supplement intakes. Conclusions We provide the first evidence that higher maternal RBC folate concentrations during early gestation are associated with increased early-onset infant AD. Our findings support the importance of maintaining appropriate folate levels during the periconceptional period to reduce the risk of AD in infants.