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The Reticuloendothelial System


The introduction of the reticuloendothelial system

The reticuloendothelial system (RES) is a heterogeneous population of phagocytic cells in systemically fixed tissues that play an important role in the clearance of particles and soluble substances in the circulation and tissues. Substances that are cleared include immune complexes, bacteria, toxins, and exogenous antigens. These molecules may be internalized by non-specific endocytosis, non-immune receptor-mediated phagocytic action, or by immunocytophagic effects mediated by binding to Fc or complement receptors. The composition of the reticuloendothelial system includes Kupffer cells of the liver, microglia of the brain, alveolar macrophages and bone marrow lymph nodes, and macrophages in the intestine and other tissues. Reticuloendothelial block is a hypothetical mechanism for preventing platelet damage by idiopathic thrombocytopenic immunoglobulin (1VGG). The binding of Ig of G-Fc receptors on reticuloendothelial cells to Ig of G-sensitive platelets, especially in the liver and sputum, can cause phagocytic action and platelet destruction in ITP. The IgG-Fc receptor mechanism can be "blocked" or inhibited by high doses of IVGG immersion, and the IgG-Fc receptor is lost during phagocytic cells but can be expressed again after only a few days.

Cellular composition of the reticuloendothelial system and reticuloendotheli

Now, studies on the intramyocardial system have found that the reticuloendothelial system mainly includes the following cells, firstly reticulocytes, which are round, large, stained, and organelles around the nucleus. It is often seen in sliced specimens such as lymph glands and spleen that some cell bodies are nearly circular and large and contain large cells of red blood cell debris; this giant cell is a macrophage transformed from a reticulocyte. Endothelial cells are also an integral part of the reticuloendothelial system. The endothelial cells referred to herein are not general endothelial cells, but endothelial cells undergo deformation and phagocytosis when foreign bodies enter. These endothelial cells are distributed in the lymph glands, spleen, bone marrow and other places. Hepatic stellate cells are also an important component of the reticuloendothelial system. We know that there are two kinds of sinus cells that make up the hepatic sinus, hepatocytes and stellate cells. The former is small and undifferentiated. The cell nucleus is black and small. The latter cell has a clear oval-shaped nucleus, and the neurite is obvious. When it encounters a foreign body, it changes into a phagocytic cell with phagocytosis. If the ink is injected into the living animal beforehand, after dissection, it was found that the stellate cells turned black because they swallowed the ink. In addition, there are dust cells in the lungs, and small gel cells are involved in the formation of the reticuloendothelial system. Reticuloendotheliosis is the most concerned when it comes to reticuloendothelial system-related diseases. Reticuloendothelial hyperplasia is a neoplastic infection caused by reticuloendothelial tissue proliferation, which mainly occurs in poultry. The diseased chickens are characterized by anemia, weight loss and slow growth. The disease is an immunosuppressive disease, and the age of onset is about 80 days. The virus is a low-temperature virus, which is not easy to occur in the hot season. The morbidity and mortality in the flock are not high, and it is chronically dead. The death cycle is about 10 weeks. Diseased poultry is the main source of infection for this disease. The virus is excreted from the mouth, nose, eye secretions and feces, and is susceptible to infection by horizontal transmission. The disease can also be transmitted by breeding eggs, but the ability to spread is weak. Chickens with longer duration are mainly slow-growing and stagnant, with depression, scarce feathers and pale cockscombs. Individual chickens appear to be dysfunctional. Acute cases rarely show obvious symptoms, only sleepiness before death. The infected bursa of the chicken is severely atrophied, the follicles are reduced, the number of lymphocytes in the follicular center is reduced, or necrosis occurs. The disease mainly affects the liver, spleen, kidney, heart, thymus, bursa, glandular stomach and so on. The earliest lesion is the liver. There is currently no effective prevention and treatment method for this disease.

Regulation of the reticular endothelial system

The reticuloendothelial system is also under the leading role of the nervous system and is regulated by chemicals in the body fluids. The state of the cerebral cortex has a great influence on the activity of macrophages in the reticular endothelium. It has been shown that the more the cortex is excited, the more activity in the reticuloendothelial system is inhibited. For example, when a person's painful cerebral cortex is in an excited state, the function of the reticuloendothelial system is inhibited; conversely, if the cerebral cortex is in a state of inhibition, such as during sleep or anesthesia, activity on phagocytic cells is enhanced. The reason why sleep therapy has a certain effect on certain diseases may be closely related to the improvement of the functions of the swallowing system. The chemical regulation of endocrine and vitamins also has a certain effect on the function of the reticuloendothelial system. Experiments have shown that in the absence of vitamin C or injection of adrenaline, the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system becomes sluggish, the phagocytic capacity is also weakened, and the production of collagen fibers is also poor. Certain chemical substances in body fluids have a regulating effect on the activity of the reticuloendothelial system. But further confirmation requires more research.

Reference:

  1. Kalkanis A, Judson M A, Kalkanis D, et al. Reticuloendothelial system involvement in untreated sarcoidosis patients as assessed by 18F-FDG PET scanning. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2016, 33(4): 423-425.
  2. Brouwer A, Knook D L. The reticuloendothelial system and aging: a review. Mechanisms of Ageing & Development. 1983, 21(3): 205-228.
  3. Old L J, Benacerraf B, Clarke D A, et al. The role of the reticuloendothelial system in the host reaction to neoplasia. Cancer Research. 1961, 21(3): 1281-1300.
  4. Saba T M. Physiology and physiopathology of the reticuloendothelial system. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1970, 126(6): 1031-1052.

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