Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is an anaerobic, flagellated protozoan parasite causes trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD) of worldwide importance. Trichomoniasis is the most common nonviral STD, and it is associated with many perinatal complications, like premature rupture of the placental membranes, premature labor, and low-birth-weight, male and female genitourinary tract infections, and an increased incidence of HIV transmission. TV is also a key factor for other sexually transmitted diseases. According to statistics, the world's annual Trichomonas vaginalis infection is more than 200 million and 300-400 million in the United States each year. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis is difficult because the symptoms of trichomoniasis mimic those of other STDs and detection methods lack precision.
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most widely studied parasite of all the trichomonads. T. vaginalis exists in only one morphological stage, a trophozoite, and cannot encyst. The live The T. vaginalis is colorless and transparent and with strong activity. After staining, it’s “pear” shaped and with the average length and width being 10 and 7 μm. A bubble nucleus in the front, the upper edge of the nucleus has five ring-like matrix which issued five flagella. Five flagella arise near the cytostome, four of these immediately extend outside the cell together, while the fifth flagellum wraps backwards along the surface of the organism. The functionality of the fifth flagellum is not known. The shaft of Trichomonas vaginalis is slender and transparent, it’s though the whole body of TV and extended outside of the body from the back. There are deep-stained particles in the cytoplasm, which are the specific hydrogen donors of the parasite. The structure of Trichomonas vaginalis is shown as in Fig1.
Fig 1 Structure of Trichomonas vaginalis
There are an estimated eight serotypes observed in T. vaginalis. A wide variety of antigenic markers are seen when used WB analysis. Using monoclonal antibodies to detect T. vaginalis antigens in clinical specimens holds promise as a rapid method in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis.
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