Fig. 1 Model of Treponema pallidum
Fig. 2 Topological model of T. pallidum seroreactive (lipo)proteins proposed localization (Aleksey Kubanov, et al. 2017)
Treponema pallidum is the causative pathogen of syphilis. Treponema pallidum belongs to the family Spirochaetaceae, order Spirochaetales, phylum Spirochaetes, which is a phylogenetically ancient and distinct group of bacteria. Due to the cell structure, physiology, genetics, and pathogenic features T. pallidum is a very unusual microorganism. T. pallidum is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, which varies in length from 5 to 15 μm and is 0,20 μm in diameter. T. pallidum is covered with the outer membrane (OM), periplasmic space with endoflagella, peptidoglycan layer, and inner membrane (IM), which surrounds a cytoplasmic cylinder. Three to six flagella extend in periplasmic space from both ends toward the centre of microorganism and determine the helical shape and characteristic corkscrew motility (rotating around longitudinal axis) of T. pallidum cells. This motility allows T. pallidum to permeate through membranous and gel-like substances and is important for T. pallidum invasion and dissemination during the syphilitic infection.
Syphilis affects only humans. The disease is normally transmitted by direct contact, in most cases during sexual intercourse. Infection comes about because of direct contact with lesions containing the pathogens, which then invade the host through microtraumata in skin or mucosa. The incubation period is two to four weeks. The disease progresses in several stages designated as primary, secondary and tertiary syphilis or stages I, II and III.
Inner membrane lipoproteins of treponema pallidum include Tp15 (tp0171 gene product), Tp17 (tp0435 gene product), Tp47 (tp0574 gene product), TmpA (tp0768 gene product), TmpC (tp0319 gene product), Tp38 (tp0684 gene product) and Tp32 (tp0821 gene product). Other proteins include surface-exposed and outer membrane associated protein Tp0453 (tp0453 gene product), putative periplasmic protein TpF1 (tp1038 gene product) and flagellar proteins FlaB1 (tp0868 gene product).
Creative Diagnostics is proud to announce that we can provide over 40 Treponema pallidum antigens, including recombinant T. Pallidum TpN47, T. Pallidum Major Membrane Immunogen p15 and T. pallidum Tp0453 antigens, etc. Please feel free to contact our customer service to find the most suitable antigens for your project.