Streptomyces avidinii is a bacterium species that belongs to the bacteria family Streptomycetaceae, genus Streptomyces. Stepromyces consists of over 500 described species and the number is still increasing every year. It is the largest genus of the family Streptomycetaceae and also the largest genus of Actinobacteria. Streptomyces can be found in decaying vegetation and soil. Streptomyces species produce more than two-thirds of antibiotics of natural origin that are involved in clinical applications, such as neomycin, grisemycin, cypemycin, bottromycins, chloramphenicol, streptomysin, etc. Streptomyces can infect in humans and plants thus cause diseases like mycetoma, but they are described as infrequent pathogens.
Fig.1 Streptomyces under scanning electron microscope (Hooi-Leng Ser et al. Microbiol. 2015)
Streptomyces avidinii is a member of Streptomyces, it is a Gram-positive, aerobic, filamentous bacteria. This bacterium produces streptavidin, which now has been used extensively in molecular biology and bionanotechnology. Streptavidin is a 52.8 kDa protein. It has an extraordinarily high affinity for biotin. The binding interaction of streptavidin and biotin is described as one of the strongest non-covalent interactions known so far. A high shape complementarity between streptavidin and biotin has been described through structural studies. What's more, eight hydrogen bonds are made directly to residues in the binding site thus form an extensive network of hydrogen bonds between streptavidin and biotin. Sreptavidin is involved in applications of molecular biology and bionanotechnology as streptavidin-biotin complex's outstanding resistance to organic solvents, denaturants (e.g. guanidinium chloride), proteolytic enzymes, detergents (such as SDS, Triton, etc), and extremes of temperature and pH.
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