Parvovirus is a linear, single-stranded DNA virus, which has an average genome size of 5,000 nucleotides. Parvovirus is a common name which applied to the viruses belongs to Parvoviridae taxonomic family. Different parvoviruses can infect humans, domestic animals and poultry. Parvovirus B19 is the name of parvovirus which can infect human. Canine can be infected by a small antigenic transfer and natural mutation of parvovirus. According to different infected carnivores, parvoviruses can be defined with different names: Parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), Canine parvovirus (CPV), Mink enteritis virus (MEV), Raccoonparvovirus (RPV), Raccoon dog parvovirus (RDPV), Blue foxparvovirus (BFPV), Aleutian mink disease virus (ADV) and Canine minute virus (MVC), etc.
Fig.1 Parvovirus coat protein homo60mer, Carnivore protoparvovirus 1.
Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV)
The first known parvovirus which can infect human, was discovered in London by Australian virologist Yvonne Cossart in 1974. International Committee on Virology classified this virus into parvoviridae family and named B19 in 1985. Parvovirus B19 is a DNA virus consisting of a linear single-stranded DNA and capsid; the DNA strand is about 5.5 kb, containing 50% of the positive strand and the negative strand. The capsid proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 are structural proteins; nonstructural protein named NS1. This virus in some blood diseases and immunocompromised patients can cause a crisis of aplastic crisis in pregnant women can cause fetal edema and stillbirth. The commonly used diagnostic method of parvovirus B19 including serology, histology and molecular biology, among these, serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used method.
Canine Parvovirus (CPV)
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) was first isolated from dog feces which suffering from enteritis by Kelly of Australia and Canada's Thomson in 1978. In order to distinguish the canine parvovirus (MVC) (also known as CPV-1) isolated from healthy dog feces by Binn et al. In 1967, the later-discovered virus was named Canine Parvovirus Type 2 (CPV-2). CPV2 has a very high identity with feline panleukopenia (also a parvovirus), which is 98%, the only difference is two amino acids in the viral capsid protein VP2. There are two forms of Canine parvovirus type 2: intestinal type and cardiac type. According to their different clinical symptoms and similar symptoms of canine parvovirus, the diagnostic kit can be used for diagnosis, if CPV was positive, it can be diagnosed as canine parvovirus disease.
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