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Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigen Products by Functions

The Infection Mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosisFig 1. The Infection Mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Pai M, et al. 2016)

The molecular determinants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection Fig 2. The molecular determinants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (Ferraris DM, et al. 2018)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious and often severe airborne disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacteria. TB usually affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. When TB occurs outside of the lungs, the symptoms can vary accordingly. Without treatment, TB can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. A total of 1.5 million people died from TB in 2020 (including 214 000 people with HIV). Worldwide, TB is the 13th leading cause of death and the second leading infectious killer after COVID-19 (above HIV/AIDS). The Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine has had success in preventing tuberculosis. Chest X-ray, multiple sputum cultures for acid-fast bacilli, tuberculin skin tests, interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are the most common diagnostic method.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis(M. tuberculosis) can be regarded as a conditional pathogenic bacterium in a sense because it only causes TB in immunocompromised hosts. Over 90% of M. tuberculosis-infected individuals can spontaneously control the infection. A key prerequisite for intracellular colonization of mycobacteria is their ability to adhere and enter host cells. To date, an array of host PRRs has been identified that mediate phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis. Upon infection by M. tuberculosis, the host orchestrates multiple signaling cascades via the PRRs to launch a variety of innate immune defense functions, which are subverted by secreted M. tuberculosis effector proteins.

M. tuberculosis Virulence Factors

  • Culture filtrate proteins: HspX (Rv2031c, hspX), Esat6/CF-10 (Rv3875, Rv3874), 19-kD protein (Rv3763, lpqH) and Glutamine synthase (Rv2220, glnA1).
  • Cell surface components: Erp (Rv3810, erp), Mas (Rv2940c, mas), FadD26 (Rv2930, fadD26), FadD28 (Rv2941, fadD28), MmpL7 (Rv2942, mmpL7), FbpA (Rv3804c, fbpA), MmaA4 (Rv0642c, mmaA4), PcaA (Rv0470c, pcaA), OmpA (Rv0899, ompA), HbhA (Rv0475, hbhA) and LAM.
  • Enzymes: Icl (Rv0467, icl or aceA), LipF (Rv3487c, lipF), LeuD (Rv2987c, leuD), TrpD (Rv2192c, trpD), MgtC (Rv1811, mgtC), MbtB (Rv2383c, mbtB), Nitrate reductase (Rv1161, narG) and KatG (Rv1908c, katG).
  • Transcriptional regulators: Sigma A (Rv2703, sigA), Sigma F (Rv3286c, sigF), Sigma E (Rv1221, sigE), Sigma H (Rv3223c, sigH), PhoP (Rv0757, phoP), PrrA (Rv0903c, prrA), Rv0981 (Rv0981, mprA), HspR (Rv0353, hspR) and WhiB3 (Rv3416, whiB3).

With years of protein and antigen production experience and advanced facilities, Creative Diagnostics now can provide high-quality Mycobacterium antigens for a wide range of applications, such as M. tuberculosis MTB lipoprotein, M. tuberculosis Old Tuberculin, Mycobacterium heat shock proteins. Welcome to contact us for more details.

References

  1. Smith I. (2003). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis and Molecular Determinants of Virulence. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 16(3), 463-496.
  2. Chai QY, Zhang Y, Liu CH. (2018). Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An Adaptable Pathogen Associated with Multiple Human Diseases. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 8, 158.
  3. He XY, Li J, Hao J, et al. (2011). Assessment of Five Antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 18, 565-570.
  4. Pai M, Behr M, Dowdy D, et al. (2016). Tuberculosis. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2, 16076.
  5. Ferraris DM, Miggiano R, Rossi F, et al. (2018). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Molecular Determinants of Infection, Survival Strategies, and Vulnerable Targets. Pathogens. 7(1), 17.
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