Influenza A virus (IAV) causes influenza symptom in birds and mammals, and belongs to the family of Orthomyxoviridae. There are several subtypes of influenza A virus. All subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for the type of hemagglutinin) and an N number (for the type of neuraminidase). There are 18 different known H antigens (H1 to H18) and 11 different known N antigens (N1 to N11). H17 was isolated from fruit bats in 2012. H18N11 was discovered in a Peruvian bat in 2013. All strains of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, and some isolates of them cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry, and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics.
Influenza A virus possesses negative-sense, single-stranded, non-circle RNAs. The genome of it consists of eight independent fragments of which combines with ribonucleoprotein and form a RNA-protein complex. Each fragment contains a relatively conserved non-coding sequence and one open reading frame (ORF). The 13 nucleotides of the 5 'end of the gene were highly conserved and had the following sequence: 3'-GGAACAAAGAUGAppp-5', and also12 highly conserved nucleotides at the 3 'end: 3'-HO · UCGUCUuuCGUCC-5. The genome of influenza virus A contains 10 gene segments which separately encodes 10 proteins: PB1, PB2, PA, HA, 5-NP, NA, M and NS protein. Gene fragments 1 to 6 encode the influenza virus structural protein, and fragment 7 encodes the matrix protein. Fragment 8 encodes a nonstructural protein. Structural proteins are glycosylated and non-glycosylated points. Glycosylated structural proteins include HA and NA, the rest are non-glycosylated structural proteins. The glycosylation sites of HA and cleavage sites of mutations, may lead to a fundamental change in viral virulence. Figure 1 shows the schematic model of influenza A virus:
Fig. 1 the Schematic Model of Influenza A virus
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