Epstein–Barr virus, abbreviated as EBV, named after Michael Anthony Epstein, and also called human herpesvirus 4, is one of eight known viruses in the herpes family, and one of the most common viruses in humans. This species is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis can cause glandular fever. Some cases show that this virus associates with several types of cancer, such as gastric cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and partly associates with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Also, the host infected with EBV would have a high risk of certain autoimmune diseases stated as some clinical evidence, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis and multiple sclerosis. Some 200,000 cancer cases per year are thought to be attributable to EBV.
Epstein–Barr virus has the ability to infect a very wide range of age of people. In the United States, about half of all five-year-old children and about 90 percent of adults have evidence of previous infection. People Infected with EBV occurs by the oral transfer of saliva and genital secretions, but most of them will gain adaptive immunity for their whole life. EBV infects B cells of the immune system and epithelial cells. Once EBV's initial lytic infection is brought under control, EBV latency persists in the individual's B cells for the rest of the individual's life.
Fig. 1 Model of the Structure of Epstein–Barr virus
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) contains a double-strand DNA about 172,000 base pairs which encoding about 85 genes. Its genetic substance is surrounded by a protein nucleocapsid which enveloped by a tegument made of protein. The most outer of virus is wrapped by complexity of a lipid and glycoprotein, and this complexity is important for virus virulence and infectious ability.
Fig. 2 Replication cycle of EBV
Epstein–Barr virus infects host cell and hence proliferates in it would experience four stages: an Entry to the cell by using viral glycoprotein gp350; b. Lytic replication; c. Latency and d. Reactivation