Ebola virus (EBOV) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus, belong to filovirus family. Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic and highly lethal virus that can cause human and primate Ebola haemorrhagic fever, known as Ebola virus disease (EVD). The natural host for the virus is unknown, but fruit bats have been suggested as the natural reservoir. EBOV can be transmitted through body and body fluid contact. There are 4 subtypes of EBOV: EBV-Z, EBV-S, EBV-R and EBV-C. The lethality of Z type and S type to human and primate is very high while R type is more moderate. There is serological cross-reactivity between the four subtypes.
Ebola virus is a single-stranded, non-segmented RNA virus, is a single-stranded virus, Each virion contains one molecule of linear, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA, 18,959 to 18,961 nucleotides in length. The length of the EBV particle is around 300~1500 nm. The EBV genome consists of seven structural proteins: nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase cofactor (VP35), (VP40), GP, transcription activator (VP30), VP24, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). The Ebola virus has a long capsule (shown as in Fig.1) with the appearance of a crooked, branching filament, surrounding a single small strand of RNA. The crookedness allows Ebola to evade antibodies and detection. There are three layers of the virus: the nucleocapsid, the matrix space and the envelope. An empty space of 20 nm diameter is inside the nucleocapsid at the very center. The virus shape is very variable. The long filaments are 80 nanometers in diameter and either 800 to 1000 nanometers long.
Fig1. Ebola Virus Structure
The genome of EBOV codes for seven structural proteins and one non-structural protein. The gene order is 3′ – leader – NP – VP35 – VP40 – GP/sGP – VP30 – VP24 – L – trailer – 5′. These seven genes make eight proteins. NP stands for nucleoprotein and VP stands for virus protein. L is the polymerase molecule that copies the RNA. Creative Diagnostics now can provide Recombinant Ebola Zaire Nucleoprotein, Ebola-Z, Ebola-S nuclear proteins. Please contact our sales representative to know more details.