Dengue Virus Antigen Products by Targets
Fig. 1 Molecular model of dengue virus
Fig. 2 Structural proteome of dengue virus
Dengue Fever virus, abbreviated as DENV, belongs to the family of Flaviviridae of genus of Flavivirus. DENV transmitted mainly by the mosquitos often causes mosquito-borne tropical disease. The host infected with DENV has a symptom, such as a high fever, vomiting, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash, typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. People often take two to seven days to recover from DENV associated diseases, but in some cases, that people infected with DENV may develop into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.
There are five serotypes of Dengue Fever virus of which the first four are referred to as DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4. In 2013, another type, the fifth type has been found. Among those five serotypes, their antigenicity differs from each other even though they have a similar symptom after hosts infected with them.
Dengue Fever virus is a RNA virus and homogeneous to West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and yellow fever virus. Genome of the dengue virus contains about 11,000 nucleotide bases, which code three different types of protein molecules (C, prM and E) that form the virus particle and seven other types of protein molecules that are found in infected host cells only and are required for life cycle of the virus.
Capsid proteins (C) Capsid protein (12 kDa) of mature DENV is highly basic and has affinity for both viral genome and lipid membrane. C protein involves in dimerization of capsid protein and binds with lipid droplets to form infectious viral particles.
Membrane protein (prM/M) prM, also termed as precursor‐membrane protein, comprises an N‐terminal domain, that is, predomain (part of membrane of an immature virus) followed by an M‐domain, stem region, and two transmembrane helices. prM can prevent the fusion of immature virion to host cell membrane, forming the membrane of a mature virion and converting to M protein during virus maturation.
Envelope protein (E) Envelope protein is a glycoprotein belonging to class II viral membrane fusion protein. It is around 400 amino acids long and is mainly involved in viral assembly, attachment, and internalization of the virus into the host cell through endosomal - mediated pathway.
Non-structural protein (NS) The seven non-structural proteins include NS1, NS2a, NS2b, NS3, NS4a, NS4b, NS5. NS1 plays important role in structural stability and secretion of NS1 in dimeric form; NS2a has a key role in poly - protein processing and viral replication; NS2b act as a cofactor for NS3 which acts as a serine protease and helps in poly‐protein processing, also involve in immune suppression; NS3 can connect helicase and protease catalytic sites of NS3; NS4a assists viral replication by modulating host membrane; NS4b involves in the formation of viral replication complex; NS5 helps virus in immune evasion.