Coxsackie virus belongs to a family of non-enveloped, linear, positive-sense and single-stranded RNA viruses, Picornaviridae and the genus Enterovirus, which has two types, named A type (poliovirus) and B type (echovirus). Enteroviruses list on the most common human pathogens, this species transmits from individual to individual along with a fecal-oral route. Coxsackie viruses share many characteristics with poliovirus. Recently, scientists pay more attention to coxsackie viruses, such as CA16 and EV71, rather than poliovirus, which the WHO has claimed that poliovirus would be eliminated all over the world in 2018. Figure 1 shows the schematic model of Coxsackie virus:
Fig. 1 the Schematic Model of Coxsackievirus
Coxsackie virus is a single-stranded and positive-stranded picornavirus, which genome has 7.4 kb and 47% G + C bases. The RNA genome of Coxsackie virus contains two conservative non-coding regions at the ends and one coding region. The 5’ terminal covalently binds a small molecule protein, named as Vpg (~ 7kDa), which regulates the viral RNA synthesis and genome assembly; The 5 'untranslated region of Coxsackie virus doesn’t have poly pyrimidine and poly-C region while the 3' end possesses a poly A tail. Each capsid of viral particle has four capsid proteins, VP1-VP4, all of which have antigenic activity. VP1, VP2 and VP3 imbed at the surface of the virus capsid; once the virus VP1 binds to the receptor, VP4 of Coxsackie virus will change its conformation which changes the location from inside to outside of the viral capsid.
Based on the antigenic differences of viral proteins (VP1-4), Coxsackie virus (B type: echovirus) was initially divided into 34 subtypes, which later has found that type 1 was identical to type 8; type 10 and type 28 should be regarded as reovirus and nasal Virus, separately; type 34 is a variant of CoxA24 virus. So the Coxsackie virus (B type: echovirus) are re-divided into 30 serotypes from the original 34 serogroups and there is a cross-immune response among the various subtypes.
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