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Clostridium Antigens

Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa species, Clostridium spp Fig. 1 Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa species, Clostridium spp (Guo P, et al. 2020)

Stages of the Clostridium difficile life cycle in the human gastrointestinal tract Fig. 2 Innate immune response of host cells to Clostridium difficile (Smits WK, et al. 2016)

The Clostridium is a genus of the bacteria family Clostridiaceae. Members of genus Clostridium are Gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobes bacteria. They are capable of producing the endospores. The normal, vegetative form cells of the genus of Clostridium are rod-shaped, and its endospores have a bottle or distinct bowling pin shape, which is quite different from other bacteria ovoid shaped endospores. Clostridium bacteria inhabit soils and are normal inhabitants of the healthy lower reproductive tract of women. The genus Clostridium contains around 250 species, including many common free-living species and several important human pathogens, such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium sordellii. Species of Clostridium genus produce several of the most potent toxins that scientists ever discovered. The most frequent clostridial infection is minor, self-limited gastroenteritis. Serious clostridial diseases are relatively rare but can be fatal.

  • Clostridium botulinum can cause botulism by producing botulinum toxin in food or wounds. It is responsible for foodborne botulism, infant botulism, and wound botulism. The botulinum toxin is now also known as Botox, and has been involved in numerous therapeutic applications. For example, Botox can be used in cosmetic surgery to paralyze facial muscles in order to reduce the signs of aging.
  • Clostridium difficile can cause superinfection potentially fatal pseudomembranous colitis. It is able to flourish during the antibiotic treating, while other gut flora bacteria were eliminated at the same time. C. difficile lives within a highly dynamic niche and is able to spend a long time coexisting with its host. The major virulence factors of C. difficile include toxin A (TcdA), toxin B (TcdB) and binary toxin.
  • Clostridium perfringens can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, the intestinal tract of humans, marine sediment and other insects, vertebrates, and soil. It causes a wide range of symptoms including food poisoning, cellulitis, fasciitis, and gas gangrene. In fact, it is the third most common pathogen of food poisoning in both UK and USA, despite that in some cases it can be ingested without any harm.
  • Clostridium tetani causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw), an infection a disease characterized by painful muscular spasms. Tetanus can lead to respiratory failure and have a fatality rate of 10%. C. tetani usually enters host through wounds to the skin and then replicates. It produces two exotoxins, tetanolysin and tetanospasmin (Tetanus toxin, TeNT). Tetanospasmin is known to be one of the most potent toxins, it causes the clinical manifestations of tetanus. It is encoded on a plasmid and is generated in living bacteria, then released when the bacteria lyse.

Creative Diagnostics provides both in stock and customized Clostridium antigen products for multiple applications to support your biological programs, such as Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, Clostridium tetani tetanus toxoid etc. Please feel free to contact us.

References

  1. Guo P, Zhang K, Ma X, et al. (2020) Clostridium species as probiotics: potentials and challenges. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. 11, 24.
  2. Awad MM, Johanesen PA, Carter GP, et al. (2014). Clostridium difficile virulence factors: Insights into an anaerobic spore-forming pathogen. Gut microbes. 5(5), 579–593.
  3. Smits WK, Lyras D, Lacy DB, et al. (2016). Clostridium difficile infection. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2, 16020.
  4. Rechner PM, Agger WA, Mruz K, et al. (2001). Clinical Features of Clostridial Bacteremia: A Review from a Rural Area. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 33(3), 349–353.
  5. Bruggemann H, Baumer S, Fricke WF, et al. (2003). The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100(3), 1316–1321.
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