Campylobacter jejuni is in a genus of Campylobacter that is among the most common causes of bacterial infections in humans worldwide. C. jejuni is considered the most common cause of community-acquired inflammatory enteritis among its many species. Foodbore poisoning caused by Campylobacter jejuni can be severely debilitating, but is rarely life-threatening. In developing countries, Campylobacter species are an important cause of childhood morbidity caused by diarrheal illness. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Efforts to prevent human illness are needed throughout each link in the food chain.Fig.1 The form of Campylobacter jejuni
C. jejuni is a micro-aerobic, helical-shaped, nonspore-forming, Gram-negative, microaerophilic, nonfermenting bacterium. It’s curved or spiral shape. The cell of C. jejuni contains an outer membrane and an inner membrane with periplasm in between the two membranes. The outer membrane consists of lipopolysaccharide. Membrane proteins are embedded on the outer surface; they are antigenic and are used for invation of the host. Meanwhile, Campylobacter jejuni is very sensitive to environmental stress such as heating, drying and over concentrated levels of oxygen.
Recently, the complete genome sequence of C. jejuni was characterized (Shown as in Fig.2). The genome of Campylobacter jejuni consists of circular DNA and 1,641,481 base pairs. It has 1,707 genes and 1,653 coding proteins. The GC content of Campylobacter jejuni is around 30.6% and the percentage coding of the bacteria is about 93%. The sequence of Campylobacter jejuni is variable. The presence of hypervariable sequences in the genome is one of the most striking findings. These short homo-polymeric nucleotide runs of variable length are commonly found in genes which encoding the biosynthesis or surface structure modifications, or in closely linked genes of unknown function. The high rate of variation of these homopolymeric tracts may be important in the survival strategy of Campylobacter jejuni.
Fig.2 Circular representation of the Campylobacter jejuni genome.
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