Chemical synthesis and molecular modeling of novel substituted N-1,3-benzoxazol-2yl benzene sulfonamides as inhibitors of inhA enzyme and Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth
JOURNAL OF THE IRANIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
Authors: Chundawat, Narendra Singh; Shanbhag, Gajanan S.; Chauhan, Narendra Pal Singh
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major contagious diseases with high mortality which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogen. Due to the existing antibiotic resistance (MDR-TB) to tuberculosis, the demand for the development of new potential chemotherapy drugs is increasing. Herein, we report synthesis of two novel benzoxazole-based series, namely 2-phenyl benzoxazole sulfonamide and 2-piperidine-benzoxazole sulfonamides. These compounds were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain, using the microplate alamarBlue assay. Molecular docking studies were carried out to comprehend the binding mode of the compounds. It is evident from molecular docking studies and minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC) that 2-phenyl benzoxazole sulfonamide scaffold has a greater potential of antitubercular activity possibly by ENR inhibition (inhA inhibitors). In silico cytotoxicity studies using CLC-Pred tool database suggested that both the series were relatively safe. [GRAPHICS]
Evaluation of the antimicrobial use in pigs in Japan using dosage-based indicators
Authors: Abe, Reiko; Takagi, Hiroko; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Sugiura, Katsuaki
The use of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals may lead to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin. The use of antimicrobial agents in pigs in 2018 in Japan was evaluated in terms of the weight of active ingredient and number of defined daily doses (DDD), using annual sales data of veterinary antimicrobials sold for use in pigs. In addition, the use of antimicrobial agents in the Japanese pig sector in 2008 to 2017 was evaluated to determine whether or not there were any differences in temporal change pattern by use of different metrics. In 2018, 447 metric tons of active ingredient, corresponding to 77,379 x 10(6) kg-days (Japanese DDD) and 34,903 x 10(6) kg-days (European DDD) were sold. The proportion of the sales amount of sulfonamides, trimethoprim and lincosamides to the total sales amount was significantly different depending on the metric used. For most antimicrobial classes, the number of Japanese DDDs was greater than the number of European DDDs. These results indicate that the DDD-based metric, which is more reflective of the selective pressure of antimicrobials, is recommended for use in monitoring the antimicrobial use in pigs in Japan. The differences in the number of Japanese DDDs and European DDDs appear to confirm the need for Japanese DDDs.