Distinct striatum pathways connected to salience network predict symptoms improvement and resilient functioning in schizophrenia following risperidone monotherapy
Authors: Han, Shaoqiang; Becker, Benjamin; Duan, Xujun; Cui, Qian; Xin, Fei; Zong, Xiaofen; Hu, Maolin; Yang, Mi; Li, Rong; Yu, Yangyang; Liao, Wei; Chen, Xiaogang; Chen, Huafu
Abnormal interactions between the striatum and salience network (SN) are considered as etiological and treatment-sensitive marker in schizophrenia. However, whether alterations in the intrinsic dynamics as reflected by resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the striatum and salience network may predict treatment response to the widely used antipsychotic treatment strategies (risperidone, monotherapy) has not been examined systematically. To this end, treatment-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients (n = 41) underwent task-free resting-state fMRI assessment before (baseline) and after 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy (n 38). Intrinsic connectivity between striatal sub-regions and core salience processing nodes were examined and compared to carefully matched healthy controls (HC) to determine disorder-specific and treatment-predictive neural markers. Findings demonstrate hypo-connectivity of both ventral and dorsal striatal-SN pathways in patients at baseline. Importantly, specifically the dorsal striatal pathway at baseline could predict negative symptoms improvement in patients; while ventral striatal pathways could predict positive symptoms improvement. Together, results indicate that distinct striatal-SN pathways represent specific treatment-success markers for the effects of risperidone, suggesting that alterations in dorsal versus ventral striatal network markers may represent brain-based markers for specific symptomatologic improvements following risperidone mono-therapy. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Liposomal Taro Lectin Nanocapsules Control Human Glioblastoma and Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cell Proliferation
Authors: Correa, Anna C. N. T. F.; Vericimo, Mauricio A.; Dashevskiy, Andriy; Pereira, Patricia R.; Paschoalin, Vania M. F.
The search for natural anticancer agents and nanocarrier uses are a part of the current strategies to overcome the side effects caused by chemotherapeutics. Liposomal nanocapsules loaded with purified tarin, a potential immunomodulatory and antitumoral lectin found in taro corms, were produced. Liposomes were composed by 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolamine, cholesterylhemisuccinate, and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[folate(polyethylene glycol)-2000 prepared by thin-film hydration. Small unilamellar vesicles were achieved by sonication and extrusion. Scanning electron microscopy evidenced round-shaped nanocapsules presenting a smooth surface, 150 nm diameter and polydispersity index <0.2, estimated by dynamic light scattering. Tarin entrapment rates were over 80% and leakage of similar to 3% under 40 days of storage at 4 degrees C. Entrapped tarin exhibited an 83% release after 6 h at pH 4.6-7.4 and 36 degrees C. Both free and encapsulated tarin exhibited no in vitro toxicity against healthy mice bone marrow and L929 cells but stimulated the production of fibroblast-like and large round-shaped cells. Encapsulated tarin resulted in inhibition of human glioblastoma (U-87 MG) and breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) proliferation, with an IC50 of 39.36 and 71.38 mu g/mL, respectively. The effectiveness of encapsulated tarin was similar to conventional chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin and temozolide. Tarin liposomal nanocapsules exhibited superior pharmacological activity compared to free tarin as a potential chemotherapy adjuvant.