Nanotechnology Responses to COVID-19
ADVANCED HEALTHCARE MATERIALS
Authors: Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo; Darder, Margarita; Wicklein, Bernd; Ruiz-Garcia, Cristina; Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; del Real, Gustavo; Aranda, Pilar
Researchers, engineers, and medical doctors are made aware of the severity of the COVID-19 infection and act quickly against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using a large variety of tools. In this review, a panoply of nanoscience and nanotechnology approaches show how these disciplines can help the medical, technical, and scientific communities to fight the pandemic, highlighting the development of nanomaterials for detection, sanitation, therapies, and vaccines. SARS-CoV-2, which can be regarded as a functional core-shell nanoparticle (NP), can interact with diverse materials in its vicinity and remains attached for variable times while preserving its bioactivity. These studies are critical for the appropriate use of controlled disinfection systems. Other nanotechnological approaches are also decisive for the development of improved novel testing and diagnosis kits of coronavirus that are urgently required. Therapeutics are based on nanotechnology strategies as well and focus on antiviral drug design and on new nanoarchitectured vaccines. A brief overview on patented work is presented that emphasizes nanotechnology applied to coronaviruses. Finally, some comments are made on patents of the initial technological responses to COVID-19 that have already been put in practice.
Evaluation of a novel antigen-based rapid detection test for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory samples
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Authors: Porte, Lorena; Legarraga, Paulette; Vollrath, Valeska; Aguilera, Ximena; Munita, Jose M.; Araos, Rafael; Pizarro, Gabriel; Vial, Pablo; Iruretagoyena, Mirentxu; Dittrich, Sabine; Weitzel, Thomas
Objectives: In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the development and validation of rapid and easy-to-perform diagnostic methods are of high priority. This study was performed to evaluate a novel rapid antigen detection test (RDT) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in respiratory samples. Methods: The fluorescence immunochromatographic SARS-CoV-2 antigen test (Bioeasy Biotechnology Co., Shenzhen, China) was evaluated using universal transport medium with nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs from suspected COVID-19 cases. Diagnostic accuracy was determined in comparison to SARS-CoV-2 real-time (RT)-PCR. Results: A total of 127 samples were included; 82 were RT-PCR-positive. The median patient age was 38 years, 53.5% were male, and 93.7% were from the first week after symptom onset. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 93.9% (95% confidence interval 86.5-97.4%) and 100% (95% confidence interval 92.1-100%), respectively, with a diagnostic accuracy of 96.1% and Kappa coefficient of 0.9. Sensitivity was significantly higher in samples with high viral loads. Conclusions: The RDT evaluated in this study showed a high sensitivity and specificity in samples mainly obtained during the first week of symptoms and with high viral loads, despite the use of a non-validated sample material. The assay has the potential to become an important tool for early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, particularly in situations with limited access to molecular methods. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.