Network analysis, sequence and structure dynamics of key proteins of coronavirus and human host, and molecular docking of selected phytochemicals of nine medicinal plants
JOURNAL OF BIOMOLECULAR STRUCTURE & DYNAMICS
Authors: Fatoki, Toluwase Hezekiah; Ibraheem, Omodele; Ogunyemi, Ibukun Oladejo; Akinmoladun, Afolabi Clement; Ugboko, Harriet U.; Adeseko, Catherine Joke; Awofisayo, Oladoja A.; Olusegun, Sunday Joseph; Enibukun, Jesupemi Mercy
The novel coronavirus of 2019 (nCoV-19) has become a pandemic, affecting over 205 nations with over 7,410,000 confirmed cases which has resulted to over 418,000 deaths worldwide. This study aimed to identify potential therapeutic compounds and phytochemicals of medicinal plants that have potential to modulate the expression network of genes that are involve in SARS-CoV-2 pathology in human host and to understand the dynamics key proteins involved in the virus-host interactions. The method used include gene network analysis, molecular docking, and sequence and structure dynamics simulations. The results identified DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and Protein kinase CK2 as key players in SARS-CoV-2 lifecycle. Among the predicted drugs compounds, clemizole, monorden, spironolactone and tanespimycin showed high binding energies; among the studied repurposing compounds, remdesivir, simeprevir and valinomycin showed high binding energies; among the predicted acidic compounds, acetylursolic acid and hardwickiic acid gave high binding energies; while among the studied anthraquinones and glycosides compounds, ellagitannin and friedelanone showed high binding energies against 3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL(pro)), Papain-like protease (PLpro), helicase (nsp13), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase (nsp16) of SARS-CoV-2 and DNA-PK and CK2alpha in human. The order of affinity for CoV proteins is 5Y3E > 6NUS > 6JYT > 2XYR > 3VB6. Finally, medicinal plants with phytochemicals such as caffeine, ellagic acid, quercetin and their derivatives could possibly remediate COVID-19. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
SARS-CoV-2 orf1b Gene Sequence in the NTNG1 Gene on Human Chromosome 1
Authors: Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans and is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the current analysis, we searched for SARS-CoV-2 sequences within the human genome. To compare the SARS-CoV-2 genome to the human genome, we used the blast-like alignment tool (BLAT) of the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser. BLAT can align a user sequence of 25 bases or more to the genome. BLAT search results revealed a 117-base pair SARS-CoV-2 sequence in the human genome with 94.6% identity. The sequence was in chromosome 1p within an intronic region of the netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene. The sequence matched a sequence in the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b (open reading frames) gene. The SARS-CoV-2 human sequence lies within non-structural proteins 14 and 15 (NSP14 and NSP15), and is quite close to the viral spike sequence, separated only by NSP16, a 904-base pair sequence. The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the binding of the virus spike protein to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and internalization of the complex by the host cell. It is probably no accident that a sequence from the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b gene is found in the human NTNG1 gene, implicated in schizophrenia, and that haloperidol, used to treat schizophrenia, may also be a treatment for COVID-19. We suggest, therefore, that it is important to investigate other haloperidol analogs. Among them are benperidol, bromperidol, bromperidol decanoate, droperidol, seperidol hydrochloride, and trifluperidol. These analogs might be valuable in the treatment of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections.