Quillaja saponin is hygroscopic and should be stable stored desiccated.
Saponins are steroid or triterpenoid glycosides found in wild or cultivated plants, lower marine animals and some bacteria. Notably, Saponins can also activate the mammalian immune system, which have led to significant interest in their potential as vaccine adjuvants. Their unique capacity to stimulate both the Th1 immune response and the production of cytotoxic Tlymphocytes (CTLs) against exogenous antigens makes them ideal for use in subunit vaccines and vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens as well as for therapeutic cancer vaccines.
Saponins are used in permeabilization of cell membranes and separation of low molecular weight contaminants and as an adjuvant in vaccine development.
Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity.
Quillaja saponaria saponin (Quillaja saponins) is a heterogenous mixture of molecules varying both in their aglycone and sugar moieties. The main aglycone (sapogenin) moiety is quillaic acid, a triterpene of predominantly 30-carbon atoms (hydrophobic) of the D 12-oleanane type. The aglycone is bound to various sugars (hydrophilic) including glucose, glucuronic acid, galactose, xylose, apiose, rhamnose, fucose and arabinose. Sapogenin devoid of any sugars can be isolated by acid hydrolysis of saponins. The structure of a component isolated from the acylated triterpenoid saponin mixture of Quillaja saponaria was reported.
Composition: Light yellow with a light tan cast powder. Sapogenin content is not less than 10%. The sulfated ash content is less than 20%.
Powder. Quillaja saponin is soluble in water. The solubility in water may be increased by additions of small amounts of alkali. Quillaja saponin may be soluble in hot alcohol and is insoluble in most organic solvents.