Virtual screening, ADME/T, and binding free energy analysis of anti-viral, anti-protease, and anti-infectious compounds against NSP10/NSP16 methyltransferase and main protease of SARS CoV-2
JOURNAL OF RECEPTORS AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
Authors: Maurya, Santosh K.; Maurya, Akhilesh Kumar; Mishra, Nidhi; Siddique, Hifzur R.
Recently, a pathogen has been identified as a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and found to trigger novel pneumonia (COVID-19) in human beings and some other mammals. The uncontrolled release of cytokines is seen from the primary stages of symptoms to last acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, it is necessary to find out safe and effective drugs against this deadly coronavirus as soon as possible. Here, we downloaded the three-dimensional model of NSP10/NSP16 methyltransferase (PDB-ID: 6w6l) and main protease (PDB-ID: 6lu7) of COVID-19. Using these molecular models, we performed virtual screening with our anti-viral, inti-infectious, and anti-protease compounds, which are attractive therapeutics to prevent infection of the COVID-19. We found that top screened compound binds with protein molecules with good dock score with the help of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. We observed that protease complexed with Cyclocytidine hydrochloride (anti-viral and anti-cancer), Trifluridine (anti-viral), Adonitol, and Meropenem (anti-bacterial), and Penciclovir (anti-viral) bound with a good docking score ranging from -6.8 to -5.1 (Kcal/mol). Further, NSP10/NSP16 methyltransferase complexed with Telbivudine, Oxytetracycline dihydrate (anti-viral), Methylgallate (anti-malarial), 2-deoxyglucose and Daphnetin (anti-cancer) from the docking score of -7.0 to -5.7 (Kcal/mol). In conclusion, the selected compounds may be used as a novel therapeutic agent to combat this deadly pandemic disease, SARS-CoV-2 infection, but needs further experimental research.
Ilimaquinone (marine sponge metabolite) as a novel inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 key target proteins in comparison with suggested COVID-19 drugs: designing, docking and molecular dynamics simulation study
Authors: Surti, Malvi; Patel, Mitesh; Adnan, Mohd; Moin, Afrasim; Ashraf, Syed Amir; Siddiqui, Arif Jamal; Snoussi, Mejdi; Deshpande, Sumukh; Reddy, Mandadi Narsimha
The outbreak of novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has infected more than 36 million people and caused approximately 1 million deaths around the globe as of 9 October 2020. The escalating outspread of the virus and rapid rise in the number of cases require the instantaneous development of effectual drugs and vaccines. Presently, there are no approved drugs or vaccine available to treat the infection. In such scenario, one of the propitious therapeutic approaches against viral infection is to explore enzyme inhibitors amidst natural compounds, utilizing computational approaches aiming to get products with negligible side effects. In the present study, the inhibitory prospects of ilimaquinone (marine sponge metabolite) were assessed in comparison with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, favipiravir, ivermectin and remdesivir at the active binding pockets of nine different vital SARS-CoV-2 target proteins (spike receptor binding domain, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Nsp10, Nsp13, Nsp14, Nsp15, Nsp16, main protease, and papain-like-protease), employing an in silico molecular interaction based approach. In addition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro)-ilimaquinone complex were also carried out to calculate various structural parameters including root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), root mean square deviation (RMSD), radius of gyration (R-g) and hydrogen bond interactions. PLpro is a promising drug target, due to its imperative role in viral replication and additional function of stripping ubiquitin and interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) from host-cell proteins. In light of the possible inhibition of all vital SARS-CoV-2 target proteins, our study has emphasized the importance to study in depth ilimaquinone actions in vivo.