Does HEV-3 subtype play a role in the severity of acute hepatitis E?
Authors: Abravanel, Florence; Dimeglio, Chloe; Castanier, Mathilde; Peron, Jean-Marie; Kamar, Nassim; Lhomme, Sebastien; Izopet, Jacques
Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) is a major aetiologic agent of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. Two main HEV-3 subtypes are found in Europe: subtypes 3c and 3f. We have analysed the clinical and biological parameters from 100 French immunocompetent patients with an HEV subtype 3f or subtype 3c infection, included in a prospective multicentre study. Stepwise regression analysis found that infections with HEV subtype 3f were associated with fever (OR: 6.1 95%CI: 1.4-26.1), have a greater virus load (OR: 7.4; 95%CI: 1.3-42.2) and require more frequent hospitalization (OR: 7.6; 95%CI: 1.1-51.4) than those infected with subtype 3c. The directed acyclic graph strengthens the multivariate analyses indicating a direct link between the HEV subtype, HEV RNA concentration, fever and hospitalization. Further studies on patients in other European countries are needed to confirm this relationship and determine the underlying mechanism.
Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E antibodies and antigens among HIV-infected patients in Fars Province, southern Iran
Authors: Shahriarirad, Reza; Erfani, Amirhossein; Rastegarian, Mohammad; Zeighami, Ali; Arefkhah, Nasir; Ghorbani, Fariba; Sarvari, Jamal; Sarkari, Bahador
Objective HIV-infected patients have immunological and clinical features that might affect the pathogenesis, as well as the outcome of the HIV/HEV co-infection. The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV antigens among HIV-infected patients in Fars Province, Southwest Iran. Methods Blood samples (5 mL) were collected from 251 HIV-confirmed patients. Respective data, including patients' demographic information, were obtained for each patient. The presence of HEV antigens and anti-HEV antibodies (IgG) were assessed by commercial ELISA kits, based on the manufacturers' instructions. Results Out of 251 cases, 158 (62.9%) were male and 91 (36.3%) were female. Patients' age varied from 14 to 83 (mean: 40 +/- 9.7) years. Out of 251 HIV positive cases, 26 (10.4%) were positive for anti-HEV IgG antibodies and 6 (2.4%) were positive for HEV-antigens. Also, 2 (0.8%) of the patients were positive for both anti-HEV IgG antibodies and antigens. Statistical analysis revealed no significant association between sex and seropositivity to either HEV antigen or antibodies. Moreover, no significant association was seen between age and seropositivity to HEV antigen or antibody (P = 0.622 and 0.945, respectively). Conclusion Our results showed a relatively low prevalence of HEV-antibodies in HIV-infected patients, indicating that HIV positive patients may not be at greater risk of HEV infection than the general population. Moreover, HEV-antigen was detected in a few cases of HIV-infected individuals which indicate an acute or chronic HEV infection in these patients.