Genistein inhibits African swine fever virus replication in vitro by disrupting viral DNA synthesis
Authors: Arabyan, Erik; Hakobyan, Astghik; Kotsinyan, Armen; Karalyan, Zaven; Arakelov, Vahram; Arakelov, Grigor; Nazaryan, Karen; Simonyan, Anna; Aroutiounian, Rouben; Ferreira, Fernando; Zakaryan, Hovakim
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causal agent of a highly-contagious and fatal disease of domestic pigs, leading to serious socio-economic consequences in affected countries. Once, neither an anti-viral drug nor an effective vaccines are available, studies on new anti-ASFV molecules are urgently need. Recently, it has been shown that ASFV type II topoisomerase (ASFV-topo II) is inhibited by several fluoroquinolones (bacterial DNA topoisomerase inhibitors), raising the idea that this viral enzyme can be a potential target for drug development against ASFV. Here, we report that genistein hampers ASFV infection at non-cytotoxic concentrations in Vero cells and porcine macrophages. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of this isoflavone, previously described as a topo II poison in eukaryotes, is maximal when it is added to cells at middle-phase of infection (8 hpi), disrupting viral DNA replication, blocking the transcription of late viral genes as well as the synthesis of late viral proteins, reducing viral progeny. Further, the single cell electrophoresis analysis revealed the presence of fragmented ASFV genomes in cells exposed to genistein, suggesting that this molecule also acts as an ASFV-topo II poison and not as a reversible inhibitor. No antiviral effects were detected when genistein was added before or at entry phase of ASFV infection. Molecular docking studies demonstrated that genistein may interact with four residues of the ATP-binding site of ASFV-topo II (Asn-144, Val-146, Gly-147 and Leu-148), showing more binding affinity (-4.62 kcal/mol) than ATP(4-) (-3.02 kcal/mol), emphasizing the idea that this viral enzyme has an essential role during viral genome replication and can be a good target for drug development against ASFV.
Detection of African swine fever virus in cell culture and wild boar tissues using a commercially available monoclonal antibody
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGICAL METHODS
Authors: Szeredi, Levente; Bakcsa, Erika; Zadori, Zoltan; Meszaros, Istvan; Olasz, Ferenc; Balint, Adam; Locsmandi, Gabriella; Erdelyi, Karoly
Following the introduction of African swine fever virus (ASFV) into Europe in 2007, ASFV infection has spread continuously over the past years and it became a high level disease threat in Europe and also Asia. Examination of suspect clinical cases for ASF with rapid and sensitive laboratory methods can substantially contribute to the detection and characterization of new outbreaks. In this study two sensitive tests were developed for the detection of the p72 major capsid protein of ASFV both in cell culture with an immunocytochemical (IC) and in tissue samples with an immunohistochemical (IHC) method using a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 1BC11). The IC test was able to detect the virus at high virus dilutions in cell culture and the IHC test indicated the presence of ASFV in all formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples collected from two wild boars. The reported IC and IHC methods were found to be useful ancillary laboratory tests for research purposes and for the diagnosis of acute ASF.