Development and evaluation of duplex TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection and differentiation of wide-type and MGF505-2R gene-deleted African swine fever viruses
BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH
Authors: Guo, Zhenhua; Li, Kunpeng; Qiao, Songlin; Chen, Xin-Xin; Deng, Ruiguang; Zhang, Gaiping
Background African swine fever (ASF) is the most important disease to the pigs and cause serious economic losses to the countries with large-scale swine production. Vaccines are recognized as the most useful tool to prevent and control ASF virus (ASFV) infection. Currently, the MGF505 and MGF360 gene-deleted ASFVs or combined with CD2v deletion were confirmed to be the most promising vaccine candidates. Thus, it is essential to develop a diagnosis method to discriminate wide-type strain from the vaccines used. Results In this study, we established a duplex TaqMan real-time PCR based on the B646L gene and MGF505-2R gene. The sequence alignment showed that the targeted regions of primers and probes are highly conserved in the genotype II ASFVs. The duplex real-time assay can specifically detect B646L and MGF505-2R gene single or simultaneously without cross-reaction with other porcine viruses tested. The limit of detection was 5.8 copies and 3.0 copies for the standard plasmids containing B646L and MGF505-2R genes, respectively. Clinical samples were tested in parallel by duplex real-time PCR and a commercial ASFV detection kit. The detection results of these two assays against B646L gene were well consistent. Conclusion We successfully developed and evaluated a duplex TaqMan real-time PCR method which can effectively distinguish the wide type and MGF505 gene-deleted ASFVs. It would be a useful tool for the clinical diagnosis and control of ASF.
Comparative proteomic analysis reveals different responses in porcine lymph nodes to virulent and attenuated homologous African swine fever virus strains
Authors: Herrera-Uribe, Juber; Jimenez-Marin, Angeles; Lacasta, Anna; Monteagudo, Paula L.; Pina-Pedrero, Sonia; Rodriguez, Fernando; Moreno, Angela; Garrido, Juan J.
African swine fever (ASF) is a pathology of pigs against which there is no treatment or vaccine. Understanding the equilibrium between innate and adaptive protective responses and immune pathology might contribute to the development of strategies against ASFV. Here we compare, using a proteomic approach, the course of the in vivo infection caused by two homologous strains: the virulent E75 and the attenuated E75CV1. Our results show a progressive loss of proteins by day 7 post-infection (pi) with E75, reflecting tissue destruction. Many signal pathways were affected by both infections but in different ways and extensions. Cytoskeletal remodelling and clathrin-endocytosis were affected by both isolates, while a greater number of proteins involved on inflammatory and immunological pathways were altered by E75CV1. 14-3-3 mediated signalling, related to immunity and apoptosis, was inhibited by both isolates. The implication of the Rho GTPases by E75CV1 throughout infection is also evident. Early events reflected the lack of E75 recognition by the immune system, an evasion strategy acquired by the virulent strains, and significant changes at 7 days post-infection (dpi), coinciding with the peak of infection and the time of death. The protein signature at day 31 pi with E75CV1 seems to reflect events observed at 1 dpi, including the upregulation of proteosomal subunits and molecules described as autoantigens (vimentin, HSPB1, enolase and lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1), which allow the speculation that auto-antibodies could contribute to chronic ASFV infections. Therefore, the use of proteomics could help understand ASFV pathogenesis and immune protection, opening new avenues for future research.