T cell and antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2: Experience from a French transplantation and hemodialysis center during the COVID-19 pandemic
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION
Authors: Candon, Sophie; Guerrot, Dominique; Drouot, Laurent; Lemoine, Mathilde; Lebourg, Ludivine; Hanoy, Melanie; Boyer, Olivier; Bertrand, Dominique
Immunosuppressed organ-transplanted patients are considered at risk for severe forms of COVID-19. Moreover, exaggerated innate and adaptive immune responses might be involved in severe progression of the disease. However, no data on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in transplanted patients are currently available. Here, we report the first assessment of antibody and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 11 kidney-transplanted patients recovered from RT-PCR-confirmed (n = 5) or initially suspected (n = 6) COVID-19. After reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 transplant patients were able to mount vigorous antiviral T cell and antibody responses, as efficiently as two nontherapeutically immunosuppressed COVID-19 patients on hemodialysis. By contrast, six RT-PCR-negative patients displayed no antibody response. Among them, three showed very low numbers of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells, whereas no T cell response was detected in the other three, potentially ruling out COVID-19 diagnosis. Low levels of T cell reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 were also detected in seronegative healthy controls without known exposure to the virus. These results suggest that during COVID-19, monitoring both T cell and serological immunity might be helpful for the differential diagnosis of COVID-19 but are also needed to evaluate a potential role of antiviral T cells in the development of severe forms of the disease.
The Use of POCUS to Manage ICU Patients With COVID-19
JOURNAL OF ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE
Authors: Schrift, David; Barron, Keith; Arya, Rohan; Choe, Carol
Since the advent of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, clinicians have had to modify how they provide high-value care while mitigating the risk of viral spread. Routine imaging studies have been discouraged due to elevated transmission risk. Patients who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 often have a protracted hospital course with progression of disease. Given the need for close follow-up of patients, we recommend the use of ultrasonography, particularly point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS), to manage patients with COVID-19 through their entire ICU course. POCUS will allow a clinician to evaluate and monitor cardiac and pulmonary function, as well as evaluate for thromboembolic disease, place an endotracheal tube, confirm central venous catheter placement, and rule out a pneumothorax. If a patient improves sufficiently to perform weaning trials, POCUS can also help evaluate readiness for ventilator liberation.