Down regulation of miR-143 promotes radiation - Induced thymic lymphoma by targeting B7H1
Authors: Zhao, Hainan; Cheng, Ying; Dong, Suhe; Du, Jicong; Gao, Fu; Sun, Ding; Cui, Jianguo; Ni, Jin; Cai, Jianming
MicroRNA-143 has been implicated in tumor metastasis by directly targeting Bcl-2, and microRNA-143 expression is decreased in several human tumors. However, the expression and targets of miR-143 in radiation carcinogenesis remain unclear. We found that the expression of miR-143 is down-regulated and the expression of B7H1 (Pdcd1) is up-regulated in radiation-induced thymic lymphoma model in BALB/c mice. Additionally, overexpression of miR-143 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis and its down-regulation promoted cell proliferation and reduced cell apoptosis. We also determined that there is an inverse correlation between miR-143 expression and B7H1 protein expression in radiation-induced thymic lymphoma samples, and miR-143 targets B7H1 in a 3'UTR-dependent manner. In addition, we found that adenovirus overexpression of pre-miR-143 reduced tumorigenesis in vivo. Finally, we conclude that down-regulated expression of miR-143 and up-regulation of its direct target B7H1 may indicate a novel therapeutic method for radiation-induced thymic lymphoma by increased expression of miR-143 or inhibition of B7H1.
Immune checkpoint inhibition in lymphoid disease
BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY
Authors: Eyre, Toby A.; Collins, Graham P.
It has long been understood that the immune system has intrinsic anti-tumour activity in humans, and that a key mechanism of tumour progression is the ability of a tumour to escape this immune surveillance. A number of attempts have been made to harness this anti-tumour immunity in both solid tumour oncology and haematological malignancies with variable success. Examples include the use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion in haematological cancer and vaccine studies in solid tumours. Enhanced signalling of the Programmed cell death-1 (PDCD1, PD-1)/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) immune checkpoint' pathway has emerged recently as a critical mechanism by which tumours can escape the natural anti-tumour immune response. As such, novel therapies have been developed to help enhance this natural immunity by switching off the PDCD1/CTLA4 immune checkpoint pathway. The following review will discuss the pathobiology of these pathways and the exciting new data now available in lymphoid malignancies.