Markers to different cells are very vital for their detection. Cell markers play an important role in identifying cell types and are used as disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets. A large number of exclusive and non-exclusive markers for many kinds of cells have been identified.
Endothelial cells (ECs) form the interior surface of all blood vessels, from largest arteries and veins to capillaries. They are exposed to various environmental forces, and a Ca2+ wave is occurred in mechanically stimulated cells. ECs are also thought to be at the center of the angiogenic switch where production of many proangiogenic factors and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and -2 (VEGFR-1, -2) force these cells to remodel vascular bed and increase the rate of blood flow to target sites.
Plasma cell (PC), specialized immune cell, is the basis for the immune system that uses secreted and circulating antibodies to neutralize abnormal or intrusive substance. As fully mature B-lymphocytes, plasma cells have acquired the complex skill of producing immunoglobulin molecules, better known as antibodies. A major issue on the analysis of PC is the sometimes low infiltration of these cells in the bone marrow that hampers cytogenetic studies. For mouse plasma cells, syndecan-1 (CD138) works fine and it is the most common marker.
Adipocyte differentiates from mesenchymal stem cell and composes adipose tissue. It can be divided into two types including white adipocyte and brown adipocyte. White adipose tissue maintains energy metabolism by storing energy as lipids. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a key site of thermogenesis in mammals. Mitochondria in brown adipocytes contain uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1). UCP1-expressing adipocytes, developed in white adipose tissue (WAT), have been named beige adipocytes.
The stromal cell can influence the microenvironment surrounding B-cell precursors through cytokines and chemokines, which exert local effects on B-cell development. They play a central role in the pathogenesis of fibroepithelial lesions, discussions of the diagnosis of the entities which usually emphasize the cellularity, cytologic characteristics, and growth pattern of the stroma as defining characteristics. The pericyte and stromal cell marker endosialin (CD248) is required for efficient lymph node expansion.
The fibroblast is typically spindle-shaped cells with an oval flat nucleus found in the interstitial spaces of organs. It functions as an accessory cell in many immune and inflammatory responses and can produce or respond to a wide variety of cytokines. Fibroblast has been put under focus, as a possible player in the complexity of vitiligo in a number of studies. It is easily harvested and is known to play an important role in promoting vascularization through the secretion of VEGF and fibroblast growth factor and to improve islet viability.