MERS-CoV Spike protein (aa 367-606) [Fc] (DAG-H10302)

MERS-CoV Spike protein (aa 367-606) [Fc], recombinant protein from Baculovirus

Nature
Recombinant
Predicted N terminal
Glu 367
Tag/Conjugate
Fc
Endotoxin
< 1.0 EU per μg of the protein as determined by the LAL method
Procedure
None
Purity
> 80 % as determined by SDS-PAGE
Format
Lyophilized from sterile 100 mM Glycine, 10 mM NaCl, pH 7.2.
Size
20μg; 50μg
Preservative
None
Storage
Store it under sterile conditions at -70 °C. It is recommended that the protein be aliquoted for optimal storage. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Stability
Samples are stable for up to twelve months from date of receipt at -70°C
Introduction
The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses contains protrusions that will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell: they are essential for both host specificity and viral infectivity. The term 'peplomer' is typically used to refer to a grouping of heterologous proteins on the virus surface that function together. The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses is known to be essential in the binding of the virus to the host cell at the advent of the infection process. Most notable is severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) glycoprotein alone can mediate the membrane fusion required for virus entry and cell fusion. It is also a major immunogen and a target for entry inhibitors. The SARS-CoV spike (S) protein is composed of two subunits; the S1 subunit contains a receptor-binding domain that engages with the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and the S2 subunit mediates fusion between the viral and host cell membranes. The S protein plays key parts in the induction of neutralizing-antibody and T-cell responses, as well as protective immunity, during infection with SARS-CoV.
Keywords
Coronavirus; Corona; Coronaviridae; Coronavirinae

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References


Antibodies and vaccines against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

EMERGING MICROBES & INFECTIONS

Authors: Xu, Jiuyang; Jia, Wenxu; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Senyan; Shi, Xuanling; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has spread through 27 countries and infected more than 2,200 people since its first outbreak in Saudi Arabia in 2012. The high fatality rate (35.4%) of this novel coronavirus and its persistent wide spread infectiousness in animal reservoirs have generated tremendous global public health concern. However, no licensed therapeutic agents or vaccines against MERS-CoV are currently available and only a limited few have entered clinical trials. Among all the potential targets of MERS-CoV, the spike glycoprotein (S) has been the most well-studied due to its critical role in mediating viral entry and in inducing a protective antibody response in infected individuals. The most notable studies include the recent discoveries of monoclonal antibodies and development of candidate vaccines against the S glycoprotein. Structural characterization of MERS-CoV S protein bound with these monoclonal antibodies has provided insights into the mechanisms of humoral immune responses against MERS-CoV infection. The current review aims to highlight these developments and discuss possible hurdles and strategies to translate these discoveries into ultimate medical interventions against MERS-CoV infection. [GRAPHICS] .

Identification of human neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV and their role in virus adaptive evolution

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Authors: Tang, Xian-Chun; Agnihothram, Sudhakar S.; Jiao, Yongjun; Stanhope, Jeremy; Graham, Rachel L.; Peterson, Eric C.; Avnir, Yuval; Tallarico, Aimee St. Clair; Sheehan, Jared; Zhu, Quan; Baric, Ralph S.; Marasco, Wayne A.

The newly emerging Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-like disease with similar to 43% mortality. Given the recent detection of virus in dromedary camels, zoonotic transfer of MERS-CoV to humans is suspected. In addition, little is known about the role of human neutralizing Ab (nAb) pressure as a driving force in MERS-CoV adaptive evolution. Here, we used a well-characterized nonimmune human Ab-phage library and a panning strategy with proteoliposomes and cells to identify seven human nAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV Spike protein. These nAbs bind to three different epitopes in the RBD and human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4) interface with subnanomolar/nanomolar binding affinities and block the binding of MERS-CoV Spike protein with its hDPP4 receptor. Escape mutant assays identified five amino acid residues that are critical for neutralization escape. Despite the close proximity of the three epitopes on the RBD interface, escape from one epitope did not have a major impact on neutralization with Abs directed to a different epitope. Importantly, the majority of escape mutations had negative impacts on hDPP4 receptor binding and viral fitness. To our knowledge, these results provide the first report on human nAbs against MERS-CoV that may contribute to MERS-CoV clearance and evolution. Moreover, in the absence of a licensed vaccine or antiviral for MERS, this panel of nAbs offers the possibility of developing human mAb-based immunotherapy, especially for health-care workers.

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