Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Virus particles include the RNA genetic material and structural proteins needed for invasion of host cells. Once inside the cell the infecting RNA is used to encode structural proteins that make up virus particles, nonstructural proteins that direct virus assembly, transcription, replication and host control and accessory proteins whose function has not been determined. The structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 include the envelope protein (E), spike or surface glycoprotein (S), membrane protein (M) and the nucleocapsid protein (N). The spike glycoprotein is found on the outside of the virus particle and gives coronavirus viruses their crown-like appearance. This glycoprotein mediates attachment of the virus particle and entry into the host cell. S protein is an important target for vaccine development, antibody therapies and diagnostic antigen-based tests.