Alphaviruses are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods, typically the mosquito, and replicate in both arthropod and vertebrate hosts worldwide. Members of the genus are categorized into either the New World or Old World group based upon the area in which they are found and the disease they cause. Till now, this genus has more than 40 recognized members, which is responsible for human and animal diseases that cause symptoms such as fever, rash and arthritis. Well-studied members include Sindbis virus (SINV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Ross River virus (RRV).
Creative Diagnostics has just released a series of Alpha viruses antigens including the capsid proteins, the nonstructural proteins and the envelope glycoproteins for relative research and hope to develop more efficient reagents to fight against this pandemic virus.
Hot Alpha Viruses Antigens Products:
|DAGA-291||SINV Envelope Antigen 2 (aa 137-493) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-292||CHIKV Capsid protein [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-259||CHIKV Envelope Antigen 2 (aa 339-692) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-260||ONNV Capsid protein [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-261||ONNV Envelope Antigen 2 (aa 338-691) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-262||RRV Envelope Antigen 2 (aa 271-334) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-263||RRV Nonstructural 2 (aa 535-1332) [His6, GST]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-264||RRV Nonstructural 3 (aa 1333-1875) [His6, GST]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-265||RRV Nonstructural 2 (aa 535-1332) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-266||RRV Nonstructural 3 (aa 1333-1875) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-267||EEEV E2 glycoprotein (aa 338-687) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-268||VEEV E2 glycoprotein (aa 348-701) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-269||WEEV E2 glycoprotein (aa 1-366) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-270||Mayaro virus E1 glycoprotein (aa 1-413) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
|DAGA-271||Mayaro virus E2 glycoprotein (aa 1-364) [His6]||E.coli||WB, ELISA|
The alphaviruses are small, enveloped, plus-strand RNA viruses. There are two open reading frames (ORF’s) in the genome, non-structural and structural. The first is non- structural and encodes proteins (nsP1–nsP4) necessary for transcription and replication of viral RNA. The second encodes three structural proteins: the core nucleocapsid protein C, and the envelope proteins P62 and E1 that associate as a heterodimer. The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through membrane fusion.
With a traditional focus on two models, Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus, alphavirus research has significantly intensified in the last decade partly due to the re-emergence and dramatic expansion of chikungunya virus in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. As a consequence, alphavirus–host interactions are now understood in much more molecular detail, and important novel mechanisms have been elucidated. Recent discoveries within the alphavirus field have provided a broader perspective of the virus lifecycle and may allow for additional control as well as further exploitation of these important viruses. It has become clear that alphaviruses not only cause a general host shut-off in infected vertebrate cells, but also specifically suppress different host antiviral pathways using their viral nonstructural proteins, nsP2 and nsP3.
Diagnostic techniques to identify human alphaviral infections have changed dramatically with the development and implementation of standardized nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). The NAAT is rapidly replacing virus isolation and typing using indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as the preferred method of virus identification. The older techniques still have value, however, since alphaviral growth in cell culture is rapid, and IFA with MAbs is inexpensive. Because symptoms of human alphaviral disease range from frank, severe encephalitis (e.g., eastern and western equine encephalitis) to polyarthritis (e.g., Ross River), detailed and standardized protocols for the identification of alphaviruses from clinical specimens and the serological characterization of human infection-immune sera are needed to confirm human infections with these agents.