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Native Viral Antigens - IVD Raw Material

Introduction

Viruses are infectious pathogens that cause a broad range of diseases. They are small particles, typically between 20 and 300 nanometers in length, containing RNA or DNA. Viruses require a host cell to replicate. Pathogens are capable of causing widespread and devastating epidemics of human illness. Nearly all of the outbreaks of clinical and public health importance over the past two decades have been caused by novel emerging viruses, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Sin Nombre hantavirus, 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1, and the recently described coronavirus EMC and H7N9 avian influenza viruses. The identification of novel pathogens has a tremendous impact on infectious diseases, microbiology, and human health. Currently available diagnostic tests for viruses are culture, serology, or targeted nucleic acid-based testing.

Viral diseases

Overview of the main manifestations of viral infectionFig. 1 Overview of the main manifestations of
viral infection (Wikipedia, public domain)

Pathogenic viruses are mainly from the families: Adenoviridae, Coronaviridae, Picornaviridae, Herpesviridae, Hepadnaviridae, Flaviviridae, Retroviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Papovaviridae, Polyomavirus, Rhabdoviridae, and Togaviridae. Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu and warts. They also cause severe illnesses such as AIDS, Ebola, influenza and COVID-19. Examples of common viral diseases include:

  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause HPV infection, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, and cervical cancer
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections in young children
  • Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes shingles and chickenpox
  • Influenza viruses, such as H1N1, cause influenza (flu)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS

Treatment

Viral infections are a frequent cause of disease in individuals of all ages. In general, the spectrum of illness is varied; however, young children and those with suppressed or deficient immune systems are at higher risk of having severe disease. Antiviral drugs, which minimize the severity and length of some viral infections, such as the flu and shingles, especially in people who are at a high risk for serious complications. For example, the drugs oseltamivir (brand name Tamiflu) and zanamivir (brand name Relenza) may be prescribed for some cases of flu. Antiretroviral medications, which can help people with HIV/AIDS lead longer lives. Antiretroviral medications hinder the ability of HIV to reproduce, which slows the spread of HIV in the body.

Product list

Analyte Cat_N Product Name Application
Adenovirus DAG-H10374 ADV Positive Sample ELISA, LF
DAG-H10356 ADV Grade 2 Control, EIA
Cytomegalovirus DAG3225 Native CMV (Strain AD169) Antigen ELISA, WB
DAG-P2894 CMV AD169 (full length) ELISA
DAG-H10358 CMV Grade 2 EIA, Control, WB
Dengue Virus DAGA-3010 Native Dengue protein (Subtype 2) ELISA
DAG-T2660 Dengue Type 1 protein ELISA, WB, LF
DAGF-039 Dengue Type 2 protein ELISA, WB, LF
DAG-T2662 Dengue Type 3 protein ELISA, WB, LF
DAG-T2663 Dengue Type 4 protein ELISA, WB, LF
Epstein–Barr Virus DAG3226 Native EBV (Strain P3HR1) Extract Antigen ELISA, WB
DAG3084 Native EBV VCA Glycoprotein 125 ELISA, WB
Hepatitis A Virus DAG178 Native Inactivated HAV Antigen EIA
Hepatitis B Virus DAG2758T HBV Surface Antigen (subtype ay) ELISA; EIA
Herpes Simplex Virus DAG3232 Native HSV type 1 Infected Cell Extract ELISA, WB
DAG3238 Native HSV type 2 Infected Cell Extract ELISA, WB
DAG-H10363 HSV-2 Grade 2 ELISA, WB
DAG181 HSV-1 Grade 2 EIA
Influenza A Virus DAG3690 Influenza A Virus (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)) Antigen Control, ELISA
Influenza B Virus DAGC081 Influenza B Virus (B/Jiangsu/10/03) Antigen ELISA
DAG197 Influenza B Virus (Hong Kong 5/72) Antigen Control, ELISA
Measles Virus DAG-H10368 Measles Grade 2 ELISA
Mumps Virus DAG-H10369 MuV Grade 2 ELISA, WB
Parainfluenza virus DAG-H10372 PIV type 2 Grade 2 ELISA, WB, EIA
DAG-H10373 PIV type 3 Grade 2 Control, EIA
Rotavirus DAG-H10379 Rotavirus Grade 3 EIA, Control, LF
DAG-H10377 Rotavirus Positive Sample Control
Respiratory Syncytial Virus DAG3087 Native RSV (Strain Long) ELISA, LF
DAG-H10378 RSV Positive Sample Control
DAG-WT314 Native RSV (Vero) Control
Rubella Virus DAG213 Native Rubella Virus Antigen EIA
DAGA-545 Native Rubella Virus Grade 3 ELISA
Varicella Zoster Virus DAG219 Native Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) ELISA
DAG3245 Native VZV Infected Cell Extract Antigen ELISA, WB
DAG-H10385 VZV Grade 2 ELISA, WB, EIA
West Nile Virus DAGA-3052 Native West Nile Virus Antigen (Strain 385-99 (New York)) ELISA
DAGA-3053 Native West Nile Virus Antigen (Strain B956 (Uganda)) ELISA
Zika Virus DAGA-3054 Native Zika Virus antigen (Strain MR 766) ELISA

Native antigens are extracted in their natural form from an appropriate source. Pathogen specific native antigens are known for their high sensitivity in diagnostics applications and are widely used for immunodiagnostic assays, especially in IgM detection. If a researcher is developing an immunodiagnostic test, a native antigen may be considered more suitable. Creative Diagnostics offer a broad range of native viral antigens for diagnostic laboratories and research institutes, and is an ideal basis for the development and production of infectious disease kits and reagents. All antigens are purified using a range of techniques to ensure optimal performance in diagnostic applications. Welcome to contact us if you’d like to know more or have questions about our products.

References:

  1. M V Ragni, K E Sherman, J A Jordan. Viral pathogens. FHaemophilia. 2010; 16 (Suppl. 5), 40–46.
  2. Charles Y Chiu. Viral pathogen discovery. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 2013; 16(4): 468-478.
  3. Nicole H. Tobin, Angela J.P. Campbell, Danielle M Zerr, et al. Life-Threatening Viral Diseases and Their Treatment. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2011; 1324-1335.
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