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Human Coronaviruses Immunoassays

Creative Diagnostics offers a variety of tools used to help understand and accelerate infectious disease research, including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, HCoV 229E, HCoV NL63, HCoV OC43 and HCoV HKU1. To help researchers navigate quickly to relevant products, listed below are ELISA kits specific for coronavirus antibody detection and vaccine research.

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*These kits are for research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

The pneumonia outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019 has attracted people all over the world to pay attention to the coronavirus. This epidemic is caused by a new type of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 which can spread person-to-person transmission via droplets or in contact with a patient directly. The SARS-CoV-2 is currently the seventh known coronavirus that can infect humans. The remaining six are HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, SARS-CoV (causing severe acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS-CoV (causing Middle East respiratory syndrome). In the past human coronavirus infections, except for SARS-CoV in 2003, usually caused only mild symptoms like the common cold. Patients are generally self-limiting and require no specific treatment or therapy. However, the symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection this time are also cough, fever, dyspnea, etc., which are very similar to other human coronavirus infections, thus many scientists decide to explore the relationship between the 2019 new coronavirus and other human coronaviruses, and whether there is cross-infection. According to the nucleic acid sequence of the S protein and N protein of each coronavirus, Creative Diagnostics designs a recombinant protein as an antigen to coat the microplate well, and can detect antibodies of different coronaviruses in the serum through antigen-antibody specific binding. These coronavirus elisa kits can help distinguish which type of coronavirus is infected by a patient with symptoms of infection.

Coronavirus is an RNA virus that was first isolated from chickens in 1937. Later in 1965, Tyrrell and Bynoe isolated the first human coronavirus and officially named it the “Coronaviridae” based on the crown-like spikes on its surface. Coronaviridae are further subdivided phylogenetically into four genera Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses are found in mammals, whereas Gammacoronaviruses and Deltacoronaviruses are primarily found in birds. Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are widespread in nature, but they only infect vertebrates, such as humans, mice, pigs, cats, dogs, wolves, chickens, cattle, and poultry. The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus of this epidemic also originated from wild animals and has 90% homology with the nucleic acid sequence of SARS-CoV. Due to the sequence has been mutated which make it has the ability of "person-to-person" transmission.

Coronavirus particle has a diameter of about 60-200nm, usually an average diameter of 100nm, spherical or elliptical, with an envelope on the periphery and spinous processes on the envelope. Human coronaviruses have a similar genome structure and protein organization. These HCoVs contain a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA (ssRNA) genome of 27–32 kb in size. The 5'- terminal ORF1a/b within two-thirds of the genome encodes two large polyproteins 1a (pp1a) and pp1b, which are important enzymes involved in the transcription and replication. The 3' one-third of genome encodes four structural proteins: Spike (S), Membrane (M), Envelope (E) and Nucleocapsid (N), which are essential for virus-cell receptor binding and virion assembly, and other non-structural proteins along with a set of accessory proteins unique to each virus species. HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 will express an additional structural protein, hemagglutinin-esterase (HE). The different genome sequence determines that these human coronaviruses have different degrees of infectious ability and replication ability in the human body. Compared with HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 contains more open reading frames, such as ORF5, ORF8, ORF10 etc., which means that more viral proteins are expressed and stronger infectious ability. As with SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 has a predicted ORF8 gene located between the M and N genes, which may be responsible for animal-to-human transmission, but it has not been verified. As for experimental research, scientists usually choose Spike protein and Nucleocapsid protein as targets, because S protein participates in the binding of the virus to the cell receptor and mediates the fusion of the virus with the host membrane while N protein can bind to the RNA of the virus.

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