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Antigens for Allergies - IVD Raw Materials

Introduction

An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body. Such reactions are called allergies. The first time a person is exposed to an allergen, they do not usually experience a reaction. It often takes time for the immune system to build up a sensitivity to the substance. In time, the immune system learns to recognize and remember the allergen. As it does so, it starts making antibodies to attack it when exposure occurs. This buildup is called sensitization. Allergy symptoms can affect the human airways, sinuses and nasal passages, skin, and digestive system. Allergic reactions can range from mild to severe. In some severe cases, allergies can trigger a life-threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis.

IgE-Mediated Allergies

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy is the most common hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 30% of the population. Exposure to even minute quantities of allergens can lead to the production of IgE antibodies in atopic individuals. This is termed allergic sensitization, which occurs mainly in early childhood. Allergen-specific IgE then binds to the high (FcεRI) and low-affinity receptors (FcεRII, also called CD23) for IgE on effector cells and antigen-presenting cells. Subsequent and repeated allergen exposure increases allergen-specific IgE levels and, by receptor cross-linking, triggers immediate release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils whereas IgE-facilitated allergen presentation perpetuates T cell–mediated allergic inflammation. Due to engagement of receptors which are highly selective for IgE, even tiny amounts of allergens can induce massive inflammation. Naturally occurring allergen-specific IgG and IgA antibodies usually recognize different epitopes on allergens compared with IgE and do not efficiently interfere with allergen-induced inflammation. However, IgG and IgA antibodies to these important IgE epitopes can be induced by allergen-specific immunotherapy or by passive immunization. These will lead to competition with IgE for binding with the allergen and prevent allergic responses. Similarly, anti-IgE treatment does the same by preventing IgE from binding to its receptor on mast cells and basophils.

Pump priming of the allergic response by allergens Fig. 1. Pump priming of the allergic response by allergens (Hannah J. Gould & Brian J. Sutton. 2008)

Types of Allergens

Many different types of allergens can trigger an allergic reaction, a very broad range of substances also can be allergens to sensitive individuals. The types of allergies including food allergies, drug allergies, insect allergies, latex allergies, mold allergies, pet allergies, pollen allergies and other allergies. An allergic reaction can be caused by any form of direct contact with the allergen—consuming food or drink, breathing in pollen, perfume or pet dander, or brushing a body part against an allergy-causing plant. In the U.S, the most common causes of food allergy are these eight foods: Milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, shellfish. Other common causes of serious allergy are wasp, fire ant and bee stings, penicillin, and latex.

With years of experience in production of purified allergens, Creative Diagnostics now can provide our customers various food allergens, plant allergens, animal allergens and fungal allergens with high-quality and cheaper price. These allergens can be used in animal models of IgE responses, antibody detection and biologic assays. Welcome to contact us for more details.

• Food allergens
Analyte Cat.No Product Name Expression System
Arachis hypogaea DAG-WT160 Recombinant Arachis hypogaea Ara h 9.0101 [His] Insect cells
DAG-WT162 Recombinant Arachis hypogaea Ara h 8.0101 [His] E. coli
DAG-WT159 Recombinant Arachis hypogaea Ara h 6.0101 [His] Insect cells
DAG-WT161 Recombinant Arachis hypogaea Ara h 3.0101 [His] E. coli
Charybdis feriatus DAG-WT213 Recombinant Charybdis feriata Cha f 1 [His] E. coli
Corylus avellana DAG-WT167 Native Corylus avellana Cor a 9 Hazelnut
DAG-WT166 Recombinant Corylus avellana Cor a 8.0101 [His] Insect cells
DAG-WT168 Recombinant Corylus avellana Cor a 14.0101 [His] Insect cells
DAG-WT158 Recombinant Cor a 1.0401 [His] Insect cells
Gadus callarias DAG-WT294 Recombinant Gadus callarias Gad c 1 E. coli
Gallus domesticus DAG-WT222 Recombinant Chicken Gal d 6 [His] Mammalian cells
DAG-WT220 Recombinant Chicken Gal d 5 [His] Mammalian cells
DAG-WT218 Recombinant Chicken Gal d 4 [His] Mammalian cells
DAG-WT223 Recombinant Chicken Gal d 3 [His] Mammalian cells
DAG-WT219 Recombinant Chicken Gal d 2 [His] E. coli
DAG-WT221 Recombinant Chicken Gal d 1 [His] Mammalian cells
Glycine max DAG-WT289 Recombinant Glycine max Gly m 4 E. coli
DAG-WT290 Recombinant Glycine max Gly m 5 E. coli
Malus domestica DAG-WT165 Recombinant Malus domestica Mal d 3.0101 [His] Insect cells
DAG-WT163 Recombinant Malus domestica Mal d 1.0108 [His] E. coli
DAG-WT264 Recombinant Malus Domestica Mal d 4 [His] E. coli
Mangifera indica DAG-WT295 Recombinant Mangifera indica Man i 1 E. coli
DAG-WT296 Recombinant Mangifera indica Man i 3 E. coli
Metapenaeus ensis DAG-WT293 Recombinant Metapenaeus ensis Met e 1 E. coli
Penaeus aztecus DAG-WT164 Recombinant Penaeus aztecus Pen a 1.0101 [His] Insect cells
Prunus persica DAG-WT288 Recombinant Prunus persica Pru p 1 E. coli
Sesamum indicum DAG-WT291 Recombinant Sesamum indicum Ses I 1 E. coli
Triticum aestivum DAG-WT211 Recombinant allergen Tri a 19 [His] E. coli
DAG-WT169 Recombinant Triticum aestivum Tri a 14.0101 [His] Insect cells
DAG-WT266 Recombinant Triticum Aestivum Tri a 12 [His] E. coli
• Plant allergens
Analyte Cat.No Product Name Expression System
Alnus glutinosa DAG-WT282 Recombinant Alnus glutinosa Aln g 1 E. coli
Ambrosia artemisiifolia DAG-WT280 Recombinant Ambrosia artemisiifolia Amb a 1 E. coli
DAG-WT281 Recombinant Ambrosia artemisiifolia Amb a 2 E. coli
Artemisia vulgaris DAGA-3100 Recombinant Mugwort Art v3. [His] E. coli
DAGA-3099 Recombinant Mugwort Art v1. [His] Pichia pastoris
Betula verrucosa DAG-WT174 Recombinant Betula verrucosa Bet v 6.0101 [His] E. coli
DAG-WT173 Recombinant Betula verrucosa Bet v 4.0101 [His] Insect cells
DAGK-008 Bet v 2.0101 (full length) [His] E. coli
DAGK-007 Bet v 1.0101 (full length) [His] Insect cells
Carpinus betulus

DAG-WT283

Recombinant Carpinus betulus Car b 1 E. coli
Chenopodium album DAG-WT284 Recombinant Chenopodium album Che a 1 Mammalian cells
DAG-WT285 Recombinant Chenopodium album Che a 2 E. coli
DAG-WT286 Recombinant Chenopodium album Che a 3 E. coli
Fraxinus excelsior DAGK-011 Fra e 1.0101 (full length) [His] Insect cells
Humulus japonicus DAG-WT287 Recombinant Humulus japonicus Hum j 1 E. coli
Phleum pratense DAGA-3095 Recombinant Timothy Grass Phl p 7 [His] E. coli
DAGK-006 Phl p 6.0101 (full length) [His] Insect cells
DAGA-3093 Recombinant Timothy Grass Phl p 5a [His] E. coli
DAGA-3094 Recombinant Timothy Grass Phl p 5b [His] E. coli
DAGK-004 Phl p 2.0101 (full length) [His] Insect cells
DAG-WT171 Recombinant Phleum pretense Phl p 12.0101 [His] Insect cells
DAGK-003 Phl p 1.0102 (full length) [His] Insect cells
Platanus acerifolia DAGA-3098 Recombinant Plane Tree Pla a3. [His] E. coli
DAGA-3097 Recombinant Plane Tree Pla a1. [His] Pichia pastoris
DAG-WT265 Recombinant Platanus acerifolia Pla a 2 [His] Mammalian cells
• Animal allergens
Analyte Cat.No Product Name Expression System
Blattella germanica DAG-WT277 Recombinant Blattella germanica Bla g 4 E. coli
DAG-WT278 Recombinant Blattella germanica Bla g 5 E. coli
Bos domesticus DAG-WT216 Recombinant Bovine Bos d 8 [His] (Mammalian) Mammalian cells
DAG-WT214 Recombinant Bovine Bos d 4 [His] Mammalian cells
DAG-WT215 Recombinant Bovine Bos d 11 [His] E. coli
DAG-WT292 Recombinant Bos domesticus Bos d 2 E. coli
Canis familiaris DAGA-3086 Recombinant Dog allergen, can f5. [His] Pichia pastoris
DAGA-3088 Recombinant Dog allergen, can f1. [His] E. coli
Dermatophagoides farinae DAGA-3090 Recombinant Dust Mite Der f2. [His] Pichia pastoris
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus DAGA-3089 Recombinant Dust Mite Der p10 [His] E. coli
DAG-WT259 Recombinant Dust Mite Der p 6 [GST] E. coli
DAG-WT260 Recombinant Dust Mite Der p 23 [His] Mammalian cells
DAG-WT261 Recombinant Dust Mite Der p 2 [His] E. coli
Equus caballus DAGA-3087 Recombinant Equus caballus (Equ c) 1inant [His] E. coli
Felis domesticus DAGA-3085 Recombinant Cat allergen fel d1 [His] Pichia pastoris
DAG-WT274 Recombinant Felis domesticus Fel d 4 E. coli
Mus musculus DAG-WT279 Recombinant Mus musculus Mus m 1 E. coli
• Fungal allergens
Analyte Cat.No Product Name Expression System
Alternaria alternata DAGA-3091 Recombinant A. alternate Alt a1. [His] E. coli
Aspergillus fumigatus DAG-WT275 Recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus Asp f 1 E. coli
DAG-WT276 Recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus Asp f 3 E. coli

References:

  1. Poms RE, Klein CL, Anklam E. Methods for allergen analysis in food: a review. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2004, 21(1), 1–31.
  2. WA Żukiewicz-Sobczak, P Wróblewska, P Adamczuk, P Kopczyński. Causes, symptoms and prevention of food allergy. Postepy Dermatologii I Alergologii. 2013, 30, 113-116.
  3. Hannah J. Gould & Brian J. Sutton. IgE in allergy and asthma today. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2008, 8, 205217.
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