Astragalus fasciculifolius manna; antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in mice
Authors: Shahrani, Mehrdad; Asgharzadeh, Najmeh; Torki, Akram; Asgharian, Shirin; Lorigooini, Zahra
Introduction: Inflammation is one of the body's natural defence mechanisms alongside the cells or tissues damage due to various stimuli or infections. Pain is one of the greatest common symbols associated with different diseases. Therefore, researchers are trying to find new medications that bring patients relief with fewer side effects. Herbal medicine has been used for periods to treat acute and chronic pains. Objectives: This research evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant properties of Astragalus fasciculifolius manna extract. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potency of the extract were determined by xylene test and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Results: Astragalus fasciculifolius manna extract at doses of 400, 800 and 1200 mg/kg significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced paw licking (late and early phase) but did not affect mechanical hyperalgesia caused by heat. Moreover, naloxone failed to inhibit the antinociceptive activity of the extract. The extract of A. fasciculifolius manna also exhibited high anti-inflammatory activity against xylene induced ear edema. Treatment of mice with the extract did not improve serum antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Results of the present research showed that A. fasciculifolius manna can prevent pain and inflammation because of the presence of high amount of saponin.
SARS-CoV-2 infection: can ferroptosis be a potential treatment target for multiple organ involvement?
CELL DEATH DISCOVERY
Authors: Yang, Ming; Lai, Ching Lung
Since the outbreak of the new coronavirus in 2019 (SARS-CoV-2), many studies have been performed to better understand the basic mechanisms and clinical features of the disease. However, uncertainties of the underlying mechanisms of multiple organ involvement remain. A substantial proportion of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have lymphopenia, low serum iron levels, and multiple organ involvement. Several therapeutic agents have been used for different stages of the disease, but the treatment for severe disease is still suboptimal. Understanding the mechanism of programmed cell death in COVID-19 may lead to better therapeutic strategies for these patients. On the basis of observations of basic science studies and clinical researches on COVID-19, we hypothesize that ferroptosis, a novel programmed cell death, may be an important cause of multiple organ involvement in COVID-19 and it might serve as a new treatment target. In spite of the existing findings on the involvement of ferroptosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is no reported study to uncover how does ferroptosis acts in SARS-CoV-2 infection yet. Uncovering the role of ferroptosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential to develop new treatment strategies for COVID-19. Intracellular cell iron depletion or new generation of ferroptosis inhibitors might be potential drug candidates for COVID-19. We hope this hypothesis may launch a new wave of studies to uncover the association of ferroptosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in vivo.