Systematic review of the antiviral properties of TRIM56: a potential therapeutic intervention for COVID-19
EXPERT REVIEW OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Heidary, Fatemeh; Gharebaghi, Reza
Introduction The tripartite motif (TRIM) plays various roles in pathological and physiological functions, including neurological diseases, genetic disorders, carcinogenesis, innate immune signaling, and antiviral activity. TRIM56 is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is stimulated by type I interferon and may function as an antiviral agent. Here, the authors conducted a systematic search on papers that reported antiviral effects of TRIM56. Areas covered The authors conducted a comprehensive search of the PubMed database without time or language limitation, after using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Database terms. Initially, a structured search and full article review yielded 31 papers. Relevant original and review articles on TRIM56 were included. The reference lists were then reviewed, and the cited articles were added.Expert opinion: TRIM56 has been shown to have direct antiviral actions against positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses from the familiesFlaviviridae, Coronaviridae, andRetroviridae. Moreover, it may be effective against negative-sense single-strand RNA viruses from the familiesParamyxoviridaeandOrthomyxoviridae, as well as a DNA virus, Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). These studies could suggest the potential of a TRIM56-based antiviral against COVID-19 from the familyCoronaviridae, containing single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. However, its efficacy and antiviral mechanisms need to be further examined.
The soybean U-box gene GmPUB6 regulates drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
Authors: Wang, Ning; Liu, Yandang; Cai, Yuanyuan; Tang, Jiajun; Li, Yan; Gai, Junyi
The plant U-box (PUB) proteins function as E3 ligases to poly-ubiquitinate the target proteins for their degradation or post-translational modification. PUBs also play important roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including plant response to environmental stresses. In this study, the functional characterization of a soybean PUB gene, GmPUB6, was performed. GmPUB6 was mainly localized to peroxisome, and showed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The transcript levels of GmPUB6 in soybean leaves and roots were induced by abscisic acid (ABA), high salinity and polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment. Comparing with the wild-type (WT) plants, overexpression of GmPUB6 in Arabidopsis thaliana decreased plant survival rate after drought stress, reduced seed germination rate and root elongation under mannitol (osmotic) stress, and suppressed ABA- or mannitol-mediated stomatal closure. In addition, under dehydration stress, the relative expression levels of seven stress responsive genes, including ABI1, DREB2A, KIN2, RAB18, RD20, RD29A and RD29B, were lower in GmPUB6-overexpressed plants than WT. Taken together, these results suggest that GmPUB6 functions as a negative regulator in drought tolerance, and plays an important role in osmotic stress and ABA signaling pathways, which might be the possible mechanism of PUB6 participating in drought stress response.