The Kit should to be stored in the refrigerator (4–8°C) prior to use. The solutions must be allowed to reach room temperature (20-25°C) before use. Reagents may be used until the expiration date on the box. Some reagents need to be stored frozen after reconstitution. The optimal storage temperature of the kit is 2-8 °C, do not freeze.
The limit of detection for Imidacloprid in water calculated as Xn +/- 3SD (n=20) or as 90% B/Bo is equal to 0.06 ng/mL. The concentration of residue necessary to cause 50% inhibition (50% B/B0) is approximately 0.40 ng/mL. Determinations closer to the middle of the calibration range of the test yield the most accurate results.
Imidacloprid, Clothianidin, Thiamethoxam, etc., are insecticides belonging to the neonicotinoid class of insecticides. Imidacloprid is currently the most widely used insecticide in the world. These compounds act as agonists of the polysynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). They exhibit low mammalian toxicity due to their selectivity fro insect nAChR over vertebrate nAChRs. The neonicotinoids are systemic insecticides and are very effective for the control of sucking and chewing insects such as aphid, whitefly, leafhoppers, and some beetles. Concerns over the use of these types of compounds arise over wind drift, contamination of surface and groundwater due to high water solubility, and toxicity to honey bees and other beneficial organisms. In late 2006 various reports started to appear on the drastic disappearance of western honey bee colonies in the USA, Europe, and Asian countries such as China and Japan. This phenomenon was called colony collapse disorder (CCD) and was first thought to be caused by a parasite, however, scientist are now convinced that neonicotinoids affect honey bees1. When worker bees collect nectar and pollen, they are directly exposed to these pesticides. They may also carry this contamination back to the hive and contaminate other bees. The EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) concluded in January of 2013 that an unacceptably high risk was posed to bees by there neonicotinoid insecticides: Clothianidin, Imidacloprid, and Thiamethoxam have voted on a 2 year restriction on their use in flowering crops, staring in December 2013. According to EFSA, the risk arises from residues in pollen and nectar from dust treatments uses in maize, oilseeds, and cereals. The monitoring of water sources and food products, such as meat, milk, and honey, for residues is necessary to ascertain that these compounds are not misused and do not present a danger to human or animal health.