Seroprevalence of IgG Antibodies for Dengue among Blood Donors
JOURNAL OF EVOLUTION OF MEDICAL AND DENTAL SCIENCES-JEMDS
Authors: Bandi, Kavyasree; Thokala, Ravindra Prasad; Anandan, Ashwin; Radhakrishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Panicker, Vinod Kumar
BACKGROUND Dengue fever is endemic India and the prevalence of dengue is on the rise owing to various social and economic factors. Prevalence of asymptomatic dengue infection varies widely from less than 1 % to 80 % in India. Transfusion transmissible dengue has been reported in different parts of the word. Prevalence of subclinical dengue among blood donor poses a threat to the blood supply leading to transfusion transmissible dengue. We wanted to estimate the prevalence of IgG antibodies for Dengue in the blood donor population. METHODS Six hundred and eight whole blood donors were included in the study during the period January 2017 to October 2018. Donor registration and education was done as per the national guidelines. Donors who gave a history of previous dengue or symptoms consistent with dengue were excluded from the study. Serum samples from whole blood donors were tested for IgG antibodies using ELISA technology. RESULTS Of the total of 608 donors, 602 were male donors and 55 % of the donors were in the age group 21 - 30 years. Majority (69 %) of the donors were from urban locations. Anti IgG antibodies for dengue were present in 4.14 % of donors of which 38 % of donors were in the age group 31 - 40 years. Three hundred and eighty-four donors revealed history of fever, myalgia and headache in the past one year. No statistical significance was found between fever, myalgia and the presence of IgG anti-dengue antibodies. CONCLUSIONS The subclinical or asymptomatic prevalence of dengue infection is low when compared to other studies in other parts of the country. Enquiring into donor history for history of dengue or symptoms of dengue and deferring such donors for a recommended period will prevent transfusion transmissible dengue.
Microbiological, Physicochemical, and Immunological Analysis of a Commercial Cashew Nut-Based Yogurt
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
Authors: Mattison, Christopher P.; Aryana, Kayanush J.; Clermont, Kristen; Prestenburg, Eric; Lloyd, Steven W.; Grimm, Casey C.; Wasserman, Richard L.
Nut-based milks and yogurts are gaining popularity, but may not offer the same benefits as dairy yogurts to consumers. Cashew nuts often cause severe allergic reactions, and cashew nut allergens are stable to several types of processing. To compare its characteristics to dairy yogurt and characterize the effects of fermentation on the Ana o 1-3 cashew nut allergens, a commercial yogurt made from cashew nuts (Cashewgurt) was evaluated for microbiological, physiochemical, and immunological properties. Average counts for lactobacilli and Streptococcus thermophilus were greater than 10 million colony forming units per milliliter, indicating the capacity to provide a health benefit. Cashewgurt pH and viscosity values were comparable to cow milk yogurts, and it was off white in color. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated a clear reduction in Ana o 1 and 2, and immuno-assay with polyclonal anti-cashew IgG antibody and cashew-allergic IgE indicated an overall reduction in allergen content. In contrast, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, immunoblot, and ELISA all revealed that Ana o 3 was relatively unaffected by the fermentation process. In conclusion, Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 are sensitive to degradation, while Ana o 3 survives lactic acid bacterial fermentation during yogurt production. The analysis presented here indicates that cashew nut yogurt is not suitable for those with cashew nut allergy.