A prospective cohort study of immunogenicity of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination among Alaska Native Children, Alaska, United States
Authors: Bruce, Michael G.; Meites, Elissa; Bulkow, Lisa; Panicker, Gitika; Hurlburt, Debby; Lecy, Danielle; Thompson, Gail; Rudolph, Karen; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Hennessy, Thomas; Markowitz, Lauri E.
Objective: In the United States, HPV vaccination is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 years; the series can be started at age 9. We conducted a cohort study to assess long-term immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV) in an American Indian/Alaska Native (Al/AN) Indigenous population. Methods: During 2011-2014, we enrolled Al/AN girls and boys aged 9-14 years, who were vaccinated with a 3-dose series of 4vHPV. Serum specimens were collected at five time points: immediately prior to doses 2 and 3, and at one month, one year, and two years after series completion. Antibody testing was performed using a multiplex virus-like-particle-IgG ELISA for 4vHPV types (HPV 6/11/16/18). Results: Among 477 children (405 girls/72 boys) completing the 3-dose series, median age at enrollment was 11.2 years. Of the 477, 72 (15%) were tested before dose 2 and 70 (15%) before dose 3. Following series completion, 435 (91%) were tested at one month, 382 (80%) at one year, and 351 (74%) at two years. All tested participants had detectable antibody to 4vHPV types at all time points measured. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for 4vHPV types at one month and two years post-series completion were 269.9 and 32.7 AU/ml for HPV6, 349.3 and 42.9 AU/ml for HPV11, 1240.2 and 168.3 IU/ml HPV16, and 493.2 and 52.2 IU/ml for HPV18. Among children tested after each dose, GMCs after doses 1 and 2 were 3.9 and 32.2 AU/ml for HPV6, 5.3 and 45.6 AU/ml for HPV11, 20.8 and 187.9 IU/ml for HPV16; and 6.6 and 49.7 IU/ml for HPV18. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: All Al/AN children developed antibodies to all 4vHPV types after vaccination. GMCs rose after each dose, then decreased to a plateau over the subsequent two years. This cohort will continue to be followed to determine duration of antibody response. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The urologist as a vaccinator
Authors: Schneede, P.; Schneede, J. B.
Vaccines are one of the most effective weapons of humankind in the fight against various infectious diseases. Therefore, physicians from all specialties should not only regularly confirm their knowledge regarding vaccinations but also actively offer them in their daily routine. Urologists can use various vaccination offers to help protect their patients' future health. In addition to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations for children and adolescents, this article shows how urologists who provide vaccines can fulfill their responsibility to implement the state vaccination recommendations to patients over the age of 60. Among others, HPV vaccination can have the effect of finally eradicating an evolutionary burden of humanity. In addition to standard vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis, special vaccinations also protect individuals over the age of 60 against pneumococci, influenza and herpes zoster. Moreover, urologists may in the future also save patients from COVID-19-the disease that actually made people aware of vaccinations again.