Dietary fatty acids and the time elapsed from their intake are related to their composition in rat submandibular gland and salivary flow rates
CLINICAL ORAL INVESTIGATIONS
Authors: Nackauzi, Jorge Escandriolo; Repossi, Gaston; Bernal, Claudio; Actis, Adriana; Gallara, Raquel
Objectives The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of dietary fatty acids (FAs) and the time elapsed from their intake on FA tissue profile of rat submandibular gland (SG) and on its salivary flow rate (SFR). Do dietary FAs depending on the intake time modify their profile in SG and consequently the SFR? Materials and methods Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats were fed on control diet (corn oil, CD, 18:2 n-6 FA) for 7 days and then divided into CD and two groups with replacement of corn oil by olive (OD, 18:1 n-9 FA) or chia (ChD, 18:3 n-3 FA) oils (1 and 30 day intake). Submandibular ducts were canalized to collect saliva for 20 min (mu L/min). SG were examined (optical/electron microscopy; ImageJ 1.48 software). Results SFR values were 6.18 +/- 0.34 (CD1), 6.04 +/- 0.31 (OD1), and 6.00 +/- 0.50 (ChD1) (p > 0.05). At 30-day intake, higher SFR values in ChD (7.82 +/- 0.7) with respect to CD (4.68 +/- 0.44; p < 0.001) and OD (6.08 +/- 0.2; p = 0.038) were found. ChD30 showed a higher serous acinous area percentage than CD30 and OD30, whereas mucous acinous density was greater in CD30 than in OD30 and ChD30 (p < 0.05). alpha-Linolenic (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid levels were only detected in SG of ChD30, while arachidonic acid was lower in this group as compared with CD30 and OD30 (p < 0.05). Conclusions SG FA composition and its SFR appear to be modulated by dietary FAs and the time elapsed from their consumption. SFR is highest with n-3 ALA-rich ChD at 30-day intake.
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as a novel forage and feed source: A review
ITALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY
Authors: Jamshidi, Amir M.; Amato, Mariana; Ahmadi, Ali; Bochicchio, Rocco; Rossi, Roberta
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), is a traditional pre-Colombian food crop from Central America. Being considered the richest botanical source of omega-3 fatty acids, it has recently been rediscovered as a functional food and feed. A growing body of literature indicates that dietary chia seeds greatly improve animal products quality without compromising growth, productivity and organoleptic quality. Chia is mainly cultivated as a seed crop but recently interest has been raised on biomass production as a potential forage source opening alleys toward the integration of chia in crop-livestock systems. Literature on chia is flourishing, up to now reviews addressed botany, agronomy phytochemical and medicinal uses, this article reviews the main findings on chia use in animal nutrition and includes an overview on both seed and biomass yield and quality as affected by environment, agronomy, and genetic background. Chia is a short-day flowering crop, seed yields of commercial varieties can be as high as 2999 kg ha(-1) in areas of origin while at European latitudes seed production is severely hampered by photoperiod sensitivity (max 518 kg ha(-1)). The viable growing of chia for seeds worldwide relies on the availability of genotypes flowering at longer days than in the areas of origin, while for whole plant a relatively high forage yield can be expected. In southern Italy commercial short-day flowering varieties yielded up to 2.07 t ha(-1) of leaf dry biomass and in Greece chia yielded up to 15 T ha(-1) dry biomass. Chia seeds supplement in livestock diet are administered with the main objective to increase the content of omega-3 and improve animal health.